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Susan Carter

.H. , 3rd . ( 1990 ). Menstrual history as a determinant of current bone density in young athletes . Journal of the American Medical Association, 263 ( 4 ), 545 – 548 . PubMed ID: 2294327 doi:10.1001/jama.1990.03440040084033 10.1001/jama.1990.03440040084033 Drinkwater , B.L. , Nilson , K

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. These changes were dependent on race duration. The highest increase was noticed in the albuminuria and uNGAL. It is not clear if AKI markers can help to differentiate between functional and structural kidney injury. Pelvic Fracture and Low Bone Density in a Long Distance Cyclist With a History of

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Graeme L. Close, Craig Sale, Keith Baar and Stephane Bermon

. , Fataar , A.B. , Hough , S.F. , & Noakes , T.D. ( 1990 ). Low bone density is an etiologic factor for stress fractures in athletes . Annals of Internal Medicine, 113 , 754 – 759 . PubMed ID: 1978620 doi:10.7326/0003-4819-113-10-754 10.7326/0003-4819-113-10-754 Nattiv , A. , Loucks , A

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fifth vital sign. However, research on long-term impacts of amenorrhea at different ages is sparse. Two major questions include the effects of timing and duration of amenorrhea on bone density and, similarly, effects of amenorrhea on later fertility. When counselling athletes about alterations in eating

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D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Kathleen Woolf and Louise Burke

volume (while in water) and other entrapped air spaces such as intestinal gas • Results influenced by athletes’ comfort and cooperation in water • Not supported in strength-trained athletes, those with low bone density, b and athletes of certain ethnicities Plethysmography (BOD POD): SEE = 1.8% d

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diseased children. More pronounced differences in cerebral oxygenation suggest an important role of the brains in exercise termination. Fat Mass Does Not Mediate the Positive Impact of Lean Mass on Bone Density Accrual in Adolescents Engaged in Different Sports: ABCD Growth Study R. Fernandes, R

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Elin Ekblom-Bak, Örjan Ekblom, Gunnar Andersson, Peter Wallin and Björn Ekblom

general, 3 , 4 childhood and adolescence PA might also have important beneficial effects in different domains, for example, bone density. 5 With the alarming reports of increasing childhood/adolescent obesity and declining fitness levels, 6 , 7 studies on the immediate effects on health and disease in

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Laura K. Fewell, Riley Nickols, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Cheri A. Levinson

individualized and supervised exercise in the context of treatment rather than independent and unsupervised exercise. Furthermore, Moola, Gairdner, and Amara ( 2013 ) found that nutritionally supported exercise lessens food preoccupation, enhances treatment compliance, increases bone density, and improves

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-31% (a deficit of 481kcal). Over a 6-month period daily energy intake was increased from 1621kcal to 2262kcal. Carbohydrate intake increased from 5.3 g/kg/bw to 6.9 g/kg/bw, protein 1.4 g/kg/bw to 3.1 g/kg/bw and fat was 0.8 g/kg/bw throughout the recorded period. Bone density T-Score increased (+2

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Alon Eliakim, Bareket Falk, Neil Armstrong, Fátima Baptista, David G. Behm, Nitzan Dror, Avery D. Faigenbaum, Kathleen F. Janz, Jaak Jürimäe, Amanda L. McGowan, Dan Nemet, Paolo T. Pianosi, Matthew B. Pontifex, Shlomit Radom-Aizik, Thomas Rowland and Alex V. Rowlands

availability, irregular menses, and low bone density). Thus, Sommi et al ( 151 ) recommend “synergistic training adaptations” ( 52 ). This type of training method suggests that strength and conditioning programs should complement the physiological adaptations occurring throughout childhood and adolescence