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Levi Frehlich, Christine Friedenreich, Alberto Nettel-Aguirre, Jasper Schipperijn and Gavin R. McCormack

-reported neighborhood-based physical activity from the N-IPAQ. Further, we evaluated the extent to which estimates of concordance were sensitive to the size of objectively defined neighborhoods (including administrative boundary, 400-m, and 800-m radial buffers). Methods Study Design and Sample Recruitment Our study

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Trent Stellingwerff, Ingvill Måkestad Bovim and Jamie Whitfield

, which is certainly a product of highly developed intermediate Type IIa (fast oxidative) fiber types, which are especially high in muscle carnosine concentrations. Carnosine is an undisputed pH buffer contributing as much as 15% to total muscle buffering capacity, as it has long been known that sprinters

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Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener and Lars Engebretsen

-trained athletes ( Jones, 2014b ). Beta-Alanine Overview Beta-alanine augments intracellular buffering capacity, having potential beneficial effects on sustained high-intensity exercise performance. Mechanism A rate-limiting precursor to the endogenous intracellular (muscle) buffer, carnosine; the immediate

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Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo and Majke Jorgensen

sprint performance ( Hargreaves et al., 1997 ). Taken together, this provides potential opportunities for nutritional interventions that could impact on training and performance, including buffering against acidosis for longer sprints (i.e., 400 m) and optimization of the phosphagen energy systems for

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Peter Peeling, Martyn J. Binnie, Paul S.R. Goods, Marc Sim and Louise M. Burke

( Vanhatalo et al., 2010 ). Beta-Alanine Beta-alanine is the rate-limiting precursor to carnosine, an endogenous intracellular (muscle) buffer, and one of the immediate defenses against the accumulation of protons in the contracting musculature during exercise ( Lancha Junior et al., 2015 ). Daily

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International Olympic Committee Expert Group on Dietary Supplements in Athletes

marginal gains be explored. A few specific supplements may offer performance benefits to some athletes, but their use requires careful evaluation. Supplements supported by good evidence of efficacy, in at least some exercise models, include carbohydrate, protein, caffeine, creatine, specific buffering

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Peter Peeling, Linda M. Castell, Wim Derave, Olivier de Hon and Louise M. Burke

). β-Alanine β-Alanine is a rate-limiting precursor to carnosine, an endogenous intracellular (muscle) pH buffer during exercise ( Lancha Junior et al., 2015 ). Chronic, daily supplementation increases skeletal muscle carnosine content ( Saunders et al., 2017 ). • Concurrent use of β-alanine and sodium

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Natalie M. Golaszewski and John B. Bartholomew

support is defined as the perceived availability of social resources as well as the support that is provided in the context of support groups and informal social relationships. Within the buffering hypothesis, social support has been shown to critically reduce or ameliorate the negative experiences of an

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Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Robert F. Chapman and Julien D. Périard

by which altitude training improves endurance performance ( Levine & Stray-Gundersen, 2005 ), a number of nonhematological adaptations may be equally as important ( Gore et al., 2007 ), including improved running economy ( Saunders et al., 2004 , 2009c ) and buffering capacity ( Gore et al., 2001

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Louise M. Burke, Linda M. Castell, Douglas J. Casa, Graeme L. Close, Ricardo J. S. Costa, Ben Desbrow, Shona L. Halson, Dana M. Lis, Anna K. Melin, Peter Peeling, Philo U. Saunders, Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo, Oliver C. Witard, Stéphane Bermon and Trent Stellingwerff

bioenergetic development, with emphasis on sprint biomechanical/structure performance components • Large dependence on exogenous and endogenous buffering systems for performance • Large individual and seasonal diversity of training programs, with large volumes during general preparation phase, and sprint