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) and fixed LT at 4 mmol/l (LT4) were obtained. All runners participated subsequently in an official 31.1km trail running race (positive/negative elevation 515m/710m; XS classification according to ITRA). Correlation analysis was performed to predict the value of the race results. Statistical

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Dana M. Lis, Daniel Kings and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

(semivegetarian) are often included in vegetarian classifications. Although concern exists about the adequacy of vegetarian diets for track-and-field athletes, it is well established that vegetarian diets can be nutritionally adequate to support training demands provided a variety of plant foods and source of

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Ina Garthe and Ronald J. Maughan

enthusiasts for sales. Elite athletes, and those aspiring to elite status, comprise only a small part of the customer base. Definitions and Categorizations Sports supplements have been defined and categorized in many ways, but none of these definitions and classifications are entirely satisfactory. In general

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Graeme L. Close, Craig Sale, Keith Baar and Stephane Bermon

the calcium intake of endurance athletes (and possibly weight classification athletes practicing dehydration strategies to make weight) is the amount of dermal calcium loss over time. Although the amount of dermal calcium lost with short-term exercise is unlikely to be that important in some endurance

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Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam Tenforde and Margo Mountjoy

weight stable and not excessively low in body mass or body fat levels yet have impaired physiological function secondary to LEA ( Burke et al., 2018c ; Loucks, 2014 ). Table 1 Classification of Energy Availability Levels With Examples of Calculation for a Hypothetical Male and Female Athlete Energy

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Bård Erlend Solstad, Andreas Ivarsson, Ellen Merethe Haug and Yngvar Ommundsen

. Gudicha , D.W. , Tekle , F.B. , & Vermunt , J.K. ( 2016 ). Power and sample size computation for Wald tests in latent class models . Journal of Classification, 33 , 30 – 51 . doi:10.1007/s00357-016-9199-1 10.1007/s00357-016-9199-1 Hallgren , K.A. , & Witkiewitz , K. ( 2013 ). Missing data

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Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener and Lars Engebretsen

further challenge is the occurrence of subclinical deficiencies that may be both hard to assess (i.e., they lack a clear metric or universal threshold of what is “adequate”) as well as subject to debate about whether there is an “optimal” level for performance that differs from the usual classification

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Ken Pitetti, Ruth Ann Miller and E. Michael Loovis

study was not supported by any external funding. References American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities . ( 2010 ). Intellectual disability: Definition, classification, and systems of supports ( 11th ed. ). Washington, DC : Author . Bruininks , R.H. , & Bruininks , B

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Terese Wilhelmsen, Marit Sørensen and Ørnulf N. Seippel

conditions are phenomena beyond the reach of conventional statistical analysis ( Ragin, 2008 ). Fuzzy QCA While an earlier version of QCA (crisp QCA) required a binary classification of the conditions and outcomes, the more recent fuzzy QCA (fsQCA) allows for degrees of membership by assigning fuzzy