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Madhura Phansikar and Sean P. Mullen

) and chronic LTPAs ( Weuve et al., 2004 ) have positive effects on cognition among older adults, and potential mechanisms for cognitive benefit range from an increase in cerebral blood flow to changes in brain structure and function ( Gligoroska & Manchevska, 2012 ). Among children, similar acute

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Alon Eliakim, Bareket Falk, Neil Armstrong, Fátima Baptista, David G. Behm, Nitzan Dror, Avery D. Faigenbaum, Kathleen F. Janz, Jaak Jürimäe, Amanda L. McGowan, Dan Nemet, Paolo T. Pianosi, Matthew B. Pontifex, Shlomit Radom-Aizik, Thomas Rowland, and Alex V. Rowlands

in the Farooq et al ( 58 ) investigation. Physical Activity and Cognition Experts: Amanda L. McGowan and Matthew B. Pontifex, Michigan State University This section of Pediatric Exercise Science highlights a subset of papers, published in 2018, providing new perspectives regarding the association

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Mohammad Moniruzzaman, Aya Kadota, Akihiko Shiino, Akira Fujiyoshi, Takahiro Ito, Ali Haidar Syaifullah, Naoko Miyagawa, Keiko Kondo, Takashi Hisamatsu, Hiroyoshi Segawa, Ikuo Tooyama, Hirotsugu Ueshima, Katsuyuki Miura, and for the SESSA Research Group

Normal human aging is linked to structural brain change, for instance, loss of volume or atrophy of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM), 1 – 3 which is a fundamental determinant of brain function such as cognition. 4 , 5 However, age-related brain volume (BV) losses do not occur in all brain

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Maria-Christina Kosteli, Jennifer Cumming, and Sarah E. Williams

increase, and these in turn can strengthen the beliefs about the positive outcomes from engaging in PA ( Hall, 1995 ). Overall, these results suggest that self-regulatory imagery is a potentially powerful tool for influencing exercise-related cognitions. Higher levels of self-regulatory imagery were also

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Edward Hebert

 al., 1999 ). In explaining the findings, Adams ( 1986 ), and others (e.g.,  Blandin & Proteau, 2000 ; Lee & White, 1990 ) proposed that, when watching a learning model, the observer engages in problem solving cognitions that form the basis of motor learning, including appraising/evaluating actions and

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Jerry Öhlin, Yngve Gustafson, Håkan Littbrand, Birgitta Olofsson, and Annika Toots

between changes in GS and cognition in very old people can be challenging because, in addition to their high risk of mortality, gait deficits become more likely with age, leading to the exclusion of participants who are unable to perform a GS test. Although it is otherwise a reasonable criterion, it

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Catherine Carty, Hidde P. van der Ploeg, Stuart J.H. Biddle, Fiona Bull, Juana Willumsen, Lindsay Lee, Kaloyan Kamenov, and Karen Milton

and Number of Reviews Health condition Comorbidity Physical function Quality of life Cognition Multiple sclerosis 0 15 12 1 Spinal cord injury 3 8 2 Intellectual disability 1 5 1 Parkinson’s disease 22 2 Stroke 14 1 Schizophrenia 4 2 Major clinical depression 5 Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

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Romain Meeusen and Lieselot Decroix

blocks for the brain to create and maintain connections, which is critical for improved cognition and academic performance. Dietary factors have a broad and positive action on neuronal function and plasticity. For example, the omega-3 fatty acids, which are typically found in high concentrations in algae

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Kenneth E. Powell, Abby C. King, David M. Buchner, Wayne W. Campbell, Loretta DiPietro, Kirk I. Erickson, Charles H. Hillman, John M. Jakicic, Kathleen F. Janz, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, William E. Kraus, Richard F. Macko, David X. Marquez, Anne McTiernan, Russell R. Pate, Linda S. Pescatello, and Melicia C. Whitt-Glover

Improved walking, balance, and activities of daily living Frailty c Improved walking, balance, and activities of daily living Stroke c,d Improved walking, physical fitness, functional independence Improved cognition Spinal cord injury b Improved physical fitness Improved walking and wheel chair skills

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Heidi J. Syväoja, Anna Kankaanpää, Jouni Kallio, Harto Hakonen, Janne Kulmala, Charles H. Hillman, Anu-Katriina Pesonen, and Tuija H. Tammelin

increasing levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and by enhancing cerebrovascular function. 33 Beside the beneficial effects on cognition, PA may improve academic engagement, 34 self-esteem, 31 , 35 and school contentment, 36 all of which predict better AA. Furthermore, motor function may be an