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Aaron J. Coutts

, there are circumstances where the public trust can be put at risk. A conflict of interest (COI) from an author, a reviewer, or an editor can influence the trustworthiness of a paper. In this editorial, I examine the potential sources of COI in sport-related research and discuss how they affect the

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Mary Lynn Manduca and Stephen J. Straub

pain, increase ultrasonography regenerative indications, and decrease recovery time. 1 Two studies showed no difference between groups. 9 – 11 Clinical Bottom Line While no adverse effects have been reported, the current literature demonstrates conflicting evidence regarding the benefits of including

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Beth G. Clarkson, Elwyn Cox and Richard C. Thelwell

women in coaching have been identified in extant literature at individual (e.g., coach burnout; Durand-Bush, Collins, & McNeill, 2012 ), interpersonal (e.g., work-family conflict; Dixon & Bruening, 2007 ), organizational (e.g., lack of training opportunity; Shaw & Allen, 2009 ), and sociocultural

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Erica M. Willadsen, Andrea B. Zahn and Chris J. Durall

of the studies found decreased landing knee-flexion angles in response to plyometric training. 4 Balance training or neuromuscular training led to decreased knee valgus and increased knee-flexion angles with landing in 2 studies. 2 , 3 Core stability training had conflicting effects on landing knee

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Michael Wälchli, Jan Ruffieux,, Audrey Mouthon, Martin Keller and Wolfgang Taube

authors declare no conflicts of interest. This work was supported by the Swiss Federal Office of Sports (grant number 14-06 ). References 1. Alderman BL , Beighle A , Pangrazi RP . Enhancing motivation in physical education . J Phys Educ Recreat Dance . 2006 ; 77 ( 2 ): 41 – 51 . doi:10

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Lawrence W. Judge, David Bellar, Kimberly J. Bodey, Bruce Craig, Michael Prichard and Elizabeth Wanless

The purpose of this study was to determine if NCAA Division I and III men’s basketball programs were in compliance with recommended pre- and post-activity stretching protocols. Questionnaires were sent to 500 NCAA Division I and Division III programs in the United States. Seventy-six coaches (75 males & 1 female) participated in the study. Chi-Square analysis (χ2(3,n=69) = 42.29, p≤0.001) indicated a greater combined percentage of static/pnf/ballistic stretches (10.14%, n=7) and combination of stretches (57.97%, n=40) than expected as compared to dynamic stretches (31.89%, n=22). Participants were asked during what period (pre- or post-activity) stretching should be emphasized. The results were significantly different from expected (χ2(4,n=76) = 129.28, p≤0.001), with a greater percentage of pre-activity stretches (26.31%, n=20) and both pre- and post-activity of stretches (60.52%, n=46) being reported as compared to post-activity stretches (13.15%, n=10). Some results seemed to be in conflict with current recommendations in the literature regarding pre-activity stretching practices.

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Trey Burdette, Barry Joyner and Dan Czech

The Multidimensional Model for Sport Leadership (MML) (Chelladurai, 1980) posits that an athlete’s performance and satisfaction are functions of the congruency between the preferred leadership of student-athletes, the required behavior of the coach as dictated by the situation, and the actual behavior of the coach. As such, research in sport should examine how appropriate the model is to today’s athletic culture. Gender, one member characteristic, has been researched considerably, with conflicting results, while race and the amount of playing time have been largely ignored with preferential leadership. The purpose of this study was to classify student-athletes’ race, gender, and playing time by their preferred coaching behaviors. NCAA Division-I student-athletes (n = 140) in baseball, men’s and women’s basketball, men’s and women’s soccer, softball, and men’s and women’s volleyball were surveyed using the Revised Leadership Scale for Sport (RLSS). Using discriminant analysis, the authors attempted to predict the student-athlete gender, race, and playing time by their preferred coaching behavior scores. None of the models were significant, indicating a lack of variance between the classification groups. Future research on the importance of preferred coaching predictors is discussed.

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Diana Deek, Penny Werthner, Kyle J. Paquette and Diane Culver

This study examines the impact of a coach education program on coach learning and perceived changes to coaching practices, while situating this episodic learning experience within a lifelong-learning perspective. Three sets of in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 coaches taking part in one of three competition-development modules within Canada’s National Coaching Certification Program (Coaching and Leading Effectively, Managing Conflict, and Psychology of Performance). It was found that (a) the coaches’ biographies varied widely, (b) all of the coaches reported learning from the modules, (c) eight of ten coaches reported a change in their coaching practices as a result of participation in one of the modules, and (d) the coaches credited a combination of mediated, unmediated, and internal learning situations for their learning before and after the modules. These findings suggest that a large-scale coach education program can have an impact on coaches when the program takes a lifelong-learning perspective and integrates constructivist principles into its design and delivery.

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Daniel Birrer

symptomatology is still regarded as a maladaptive reaction to an identifiable psychosocial stressor or multiple stressors (e.g., divorce or conflicts at work), but the disorder is characterized by a preoccupation with the stressor or its consequences, including excessive worry, recurrent, and distressing

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Jörg Krieger, Lindsay Parks Pieper and Ian Ritchie

oversight. 14 IFs’ constitutions and charters typically require individuals to resolve disputes internally via sport-specific tribunals, minimizing athletes’ and officials’ options for conflict resolution. For example, the International Volleyball Federation (FIVB) Constitution mandates resolution in FIVB