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Robert W. Cox, Rodrigo E. Martinez, Russell T. Baker and Lindsay Warren

repeated measures correlation study was designed to determine if the Clinometer Smartphone Application™ would produce equivalent measurements to the Baseline Evaluation Instruments™ 12-1000 plastic goniometer. The University of Idaho Institutional Review Board granted approval for the study. Written

Open access

Kenji Kanazawa, Yoshihiro Hagiwara, Takuya Sekiguchi, Ryo Fujita, Kazuaki Suzuki, Masashi Koide, Akira Ando and Yutaka Yabe

to investigate correlations between ROM and CHL elasticity, by using shear-wave elastography evaluation, in order to verify and expand upon data suggesting that CHL elasticity decreases with age and influences ROM restrictions. Materials and Methods Subjects A total of 84 volunteers (39 men and 45

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Erin Strutz, Raymond Browning, Stephanie Smith, Barbara Lohse and Leslie Cunningham-Sabo

in one group will precipitate PA changes in the other group. Thus, for such interventions to be successful, a significant positive correlation between parent and child PA must exist. Previous explorations that have examined the correlation between parent and child PA levels using direct observation

Open access

Shelley L. Holden, Christopher M. Keshock, Brooke E. Forester and Robert J. Heitman


Athlete burnout is a phenomenon that has been studied in previous research and is a concern in terms of athlete’s health and well–being (Capel, Sisley, & Desertrain, 1987; Harris, 2005; Kelley, Eklund, & Ritter-Taylor, 1999; Kjormo & Halvari, 2006; Raedeke, Warren, & Granzyk, 2000). Further, it is assumed by many sport coaches that the longer an athlete competes competitively in a sport, the greater chance for athlete burnout and the potential negative health consequences they could incur.


The purpose of the current study was to determine the correlation between years of sport competition and an athlete’s level of burnout on the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) subscales of Emotional Exhaustion (EE), Depersonalization (DP), and Personal Accomplishment (PA).


The study was limited female athletes at a Division I institution in the Southeastern United States. Participants for this study were obtained via voluntary participation. The number of female athletes who completed the survey was 99. Athletes who participated were members of the women’s basketball, cross country, golf, soccer, softball, track and field, and volleyball teams.


The data was analyzed using Pearson correlations. Each burnout subscale was analyzed separately with years of sport competition. Results found no significant (p<.05) correlations between years of sport competition and EE (p=.038), DP (p=.029), or PA (p=-.062).


The current findings indicate that years of sport competition are not correlated with levels of burnout and female Division I collegiate athletes. Much prior research has also examined intensive training and effects on young athletes and concluded that there are concerns about intense training and psychological injury (Maffulli & Pintore, 1990). Therefore, based upon prior research and the results of the current study, future research should continue to study the effects of years of competition and burnout in order to truly understand its effects on athletes.

Open access

Trey Brokaw

This presentation will share the results from a study conducted on college track and field athletes at the NCAA division II level. The study compares the results of scores on the Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS) and, individual athlete’s improvements in their event area according to the International Association of Athletics Federation (IAAF) scoring charts for track and field. A select group of primarily middle distance and distance runners was selected for the study. These athletes were given a baseline TOPS examination to evaluate their prior knowledge and use of mental skills in their athletic experiences. Personal best times in the athlete’s primary events were recorded from the previous year. During the nine weeks of the outdoor track and field season that this study took place; athletes were introduced to a wide array of activities associated with improving their mental skills. Such activities included goal setting, imagery, relaxation, optimum level of arousal, affirmations, and the use of positive self-talk and routines. Athletes would have an organized mental skills session at least twice each of the nine weeks of the season. Athletes also had an individual meeting with the coaches to go over goal setting and the use of their mental skills to enhance their physical skills. After the outdoor season was completed the athletes took a post-examination TOPS. The scores were compared with their pretest scores as well as their improvement in personal best times in their main events on the track.

Open access

Elshan Najafov, Şeyda Özal, Ahmet Yiğit Kaptan, Coşkun Ulucaköy, Ulunay Kanatlı, Baybars Ataoğlu and Selda Başar

alpha value. 15 Test–retest reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficient. 16 The validity of the scale was evaluated in terms of concurrent validity. To assess the concurrent validity, total LHB scores were compared with ASES and mCMS scores. Similarly, subsections of LHB score

Open access

Manuel Trinidad-Fernández, Manuel González-Sánchez and Antonio I. Cuesta-Vargas

). Figure 1 —References system in scapula and processing of the ultrasonography images. (A) With ImageJ, we marked the angle between the rib and the medial border of the scapula in 2 different positions. (B) We selected the medial border of the scapula in the first position in order to perform the cross-correlation

Open access

Salman Nazary-Moghadam, Mahyar Salavati, Ali Esteki, Behnam Akhbari, Sohrab Keyhani and Afsaneh Zeinalzadeh

using the means of the 3 trials. The significance level was set at .05 for all statistical tests. In addition, relative reliability was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) in 2-way random models. ICC 1 , 2 and ICC 2 , 3 were used to analyze intrasession and intersession

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Kai-Yu Ho, Brenda Benson Deaver, Tyrel Nelson and Catherine Turner

legs were combined for each task during analysis. Interrater and intrarater reliability were analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 3, k ) and standard error of measurement (SEM). ICC values were classified according to the following criteria 5 : poor (<.4), fair (.4–.7), good (.7

Open access

Taru Manyanga, Joel D. Barnes, Chalchisa Abdeta, Ade F. Adeniyi, Jasmin Bhawra, Catherine E. Draper, Tarun R. Katapally, Asaduzzaman Khan, Estelle Lambert, Daga Makaza, Vida K. Nyawornota, Reginald Ocansey, Narayan Subedi, Riaz Uddin, Dawn Tladi and Mark S. Tremblay

grade/score and category level in scatter plots. For all correlation analyses among the 10 core indicators and global indices and descriptors (HDI, Gini coefficient, gender inequality, mean years of schooling, public health expenditure, 29 and improved drinking water coverage 39 ), Spearman’s rank