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Stephan R. Fisher, Justin H. Rigby, Joni A. Mettler and Kevin W. McCurdy

regulatory factors, and increases the formation of new red blood cells locally. 2 These effects make PBMT a valuable treatment option for muscle recovery; however, PBMT has not become a mainstream tool for muscle recovery in clinical practice. For decades, cryotherapy has been a popular modality for

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Matt Hausmann, Jacob Ober and Adam S. Lepley

athlete • I ntervention (or Assessment): deep oscillation therapy • C omparison: cryotherapy AND compression • O utcome(s): reduction in swelling, pain Sources of Evidence Searched • The Cochrane Library • PubMed • PEDro Database • MEDLINE • CINAHL • SPORTDiscus Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Inclusion

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Jesús Seco-Calvo, Juan Mielgo-Ayuso, César Calvo-Lobo and Alfredo Córdova

Several physical therapy methods were used as postexercise recovery strategies, alleviating musculoskeletal alterations secondary to training and competition. Among these interventions, contrast therapy—which alternates between hot and cold treatment modalities 1 —whole-body cryotherapy, and cold

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Julie A. Fuller, Heidi L. Hammil, Kelly J. Pronschinske and Chris J. Durall

including: closed reduction of the patella, immobilization, cryotherapy within the first day of injury, aspiration of effusion, and isometric quadriceps exercises as pain levels decreased. Both groups underwent aspiration of effusion. Nonoperative treatment by bracing and exercise. Both groups were put in

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Michael Kellmann, Maurizio Bertollo, Laurent Bosquet, Michel Brink, Aaron J. Coutts, Rob Duffield, Daniel Erlacher, Shona L. Halson, Anne Hecksteden, Jahan Heidari, K. Wolfgang Kallus, Romain Meeusen, Iñigo Mujika, Claudio Robazza, Sabrina Skorski, Ranel Venter and Jürgen Beckmann

-body cryotherapy, compression garments, massage, intermittent pneumatic compression, electrostimulation, sauna, far-infrared therapy). The outcomes emphasize that the efficacy of specific recovery interventions needs to be determined in the context of the athlete and his or her schedule and current short- and long

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Josep C. Benítez-Martínez, Pablo Martínez-Ramírez, Fermín Valera-Garrido, Jose Casaña-Granell and Francesc Medina-Mirapeix

corticosteroid injections in some cases for a short-term effect, 20 load training modification, 21 and other therapeutic modalities (therapeutic ultrasound, cryotherapy, transverse friction massage, bracing, or taping). 22 Nevertheless, an active debate still exists regarding changes in tendon abnormalities

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Keith Baar

, severe chronic PT can be visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an increase in signal intensity at the inferior pole of the patella ( Johnson et al., 1996 ), suggesting that it develops from an injury to the proximal enthesis. In nonelite athletes, PT is treated with rest and cryotherapy with

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James A. Betts, Javier T. Gonzalez, Louise M. Burke, Graeme L. Close, Ina Garthe, Lewis J. James, Asker E. Jeukendrup, James P. Morton, David C. Nieman, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Trent Stellingwerff, Luc J.C. van Loon, Clyde Williams, Kathleen Woolf, Ron Maughan and Greg Atkinson

are difficult or essentially impossible to truly blind (e.g., cryotherapy or exercise) and in some cases the participants’ awareness of the intervention is pivotal to the proposed mechanism of action (e.g., psychological interventions). In such situations where blinding of treatment allocation is