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Laura K. Fewell, Riley Nickols, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Cheri A. Levinson

differences between these populations exist. Mood and Anxiety Disorders Other differentiating markers of mental health, such as mood and anxiety disorders, are also poorly understood among athlete and non-athlete populations with EDs. Depression and anxiety are reportedly lower in athletes than non

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Kazuhiro Harada, Kouhei Masumoto and Narihiko Kondo

physical activity has desirable effects on mental health variables such as depression, 3 , 4 anxiety, 5 and mental well-being. 6 However, despite these previous investigations of the relationships between physical activity and mental health, it remains unclear what specific conditions of physical

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Ricky Camplain, Julie A. Baldwin, Meghan Warren, Carolyn Camplain, Monica R. Lininger and Robert T. Trotter

physical activity during recreational time also reported asthma (18.5%), hypertension (40.7%), high cholesterol (18.5%), diabetes (11.1%), anxiety (34.0%), and depression (39.6%). Of the 145 participants who sometimes or who never engaged in recreation-time physical activity, most reported motivation

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Kenneth E. Powell, Abby C. King, David M. Buchner, Wayne W. Campbell, Loretta DiPietro, Kirk I. Erickson, Charles H. Hillman, John M. Jakicic, Kathleen F. Janz, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, William E. Kraus, Richard F. Macko, David X. Marquez, Anne McTiernan, Russell R. Pate, Linda S. Pescatello and Melicia C. Whitt-Glover

gain in children, adults, and pregnant women; (4) reduced risk of gestational diabetes and postpartum depression; and (5) reduced risk of fall-related injuries in older people. In addition, there is evidence that physical activity is associated with (1) improved quality of life, (2) improved sleep; (3

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Daniel Birrer

training distress, such as performance decrements, psychological disturbance, and psychological distress, especially mood disturbances such as decreased vigor, increased fatigue, depression, loss of motivation, drowsiness, apathy, devaluation or cynicism toward the sport, irritability, agitation

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Justine J. Reel and Emily Crouch

abuse comprise the highest percentage of individuals with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and they are significantly more likely to develop anxiety and depression, abuse drugs and alcohol, and attempt suicide ( Olafson, 2011 ). But victims extend beyond athletes and include fellow coaches and

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Katrina G. Ritter, Matthew J. Hussey and Tamara C. Valovich McLeod

benefits of exercise as treatment of PCS. Exercise gives patients increased self-efficacy; less anxiety, stress, and depression; and better overall well-being. 17 – 19 Regular exercise has shown to have cognitive benefits in improving cognitive function, sleep, learning, and memory. 17 , 18 Athletes, who

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Taru Manyanga, Joel D. Barnes, Chalchisa Abdeta, Ade F. Adeniyi, Jasmin Bhawra, Catherine E. Draper, Tarun R. Katapally, Asaduzzaman Khan, Estelle Lambert, Daga Makaza, Vida K. Nyawornota, Reginald Ocansey, Narayan Subedi, Riaz Uddin, Dawn Tladi and Mark S. Tremblay

income inequality may affect overall physical activity or sedentary behavior include its relationship with depression, 60 , 61 which in turn is reportedly associated with decreased participation in physical activity 60 and increased sedentary behavior among adolescents 62 , 63 and adults. 59 Income

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Roberta Gaspar, Natalia Padula, Tatiana B. Freitas, João P.J. de Oliveira and Camila Torriani-Pasin

improvement of depression frame. Moderate Hicks et al 43 N = 34 subjects EG: 21 subjects CG: 13 subjects SCI level: C4-L1 AIS A-D DO: 11 (10 EG/11 CG) Evaluate the effects of a program of 9-mo exercise on strength, performance in manual cycle ergometer, psychological variables, and quality of life. 36 wk F: 2

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D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Kathleen Woolf and Louise Burke

urinary metabolites, N’-methyl-nicotinamide (NMN) and N’-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (2-pyridone) j,k Urinary NMN j,k Good status 17.5–46.7 µmol/d Low status 5.8–17.5 µmol/d Poor status <5.8 µmol/d Early: lassitude anorexia, weakness, depression, digestive disturbances, anxiety, and irritability