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Paddy C. Dempsey, Christine M. Friedenreich, Michael F. Leitzmann, Matthew P. Buman, Estelle Lambert, Juana Willumsen, and Fiona Bull

Chronic conditions—including noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, cancer, and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and some communicable diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)—are diseases of long duration, slow progression, and generally requiring ongoing

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Kenneth E. Powell, Abby C. King, David M. Buchner, Wayne W. Campbell, Loretta DiPietro, Kirk I. Erickson, Charles H. Hillman, John M. Jakicic, Kathleen F. Janz, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, William E. Kraus, Richard F. Macko, David X. Marquez, Anne McTiernan, Russell R. Pate, Linda S. Pescatello, and Melicia C. Whitt-Glover

gain in children, adults, and pregnant women; (4) reduced risk of gestational diabetes and postpartum depression; and (5) reduced risk of fall-related injuries in older people. In addition, there is evidence that physical activity is associated with (1) improved quality of life, (2) improved sleep; (3

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Kelsey M. Rynkiewicz, Lauren A. Fry, and Lindsay J. DiStefano

decreased the likelihood of CECS. Level of evidence 2 3 2 3 Validity score N/A N/A N/A N/A Conclusion • CECS is multifactorial. • CECS is more common in the nonathletic population than previously recognized. • Minor trauma or diabetes may contribute to the development of CECS. • Minimal evidence exists to

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Emma L. Sweeney, Daniel J. Peart, Irene Kyza, Thomas Harkes, Jason G. Ellis, and Ian H. Walshe

Short sleep durations are becoming increasingly common, with almost 75% of adults in Great Britain sleeping outside the recommended 7–9 hr each night ( Hirshkowitz et al., 2015 ). Chronic short sleep is associated with increased risk of developing many diseases, including type 2 diabetes ( Yaggi et

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Baruch Vainshelboim, Zhongming Chen, Ricardo M. Lima, and Jonathan Myers

in pack-years, presence of cardiac and pulmonary disease, diabetes, and physical activity status (active or inactive). 2 , 39 , 40 Physical activity status was evaluated by a participant’s response to the question: “Do you engage in some form of physical activity such as brisk walking, jogging

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Geoffrey M. Hudson and Kyle Sprow

Physical activity is important for prevention and management of numerous chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. 1 – 3 People with higher levels of physical activity have lower all-cause mortality, improved immune function, and better recovery from upper respiratory

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Ryoko Kawakami, Yuko Gando, Kiminori Kato, Susumu S. Sawada, Haruki Momma, Motohiko Miyachi, I-Min Lee, Steven N. Blair, Minoru Tashiro, Chika Horikawa, Yasuhiro Matsubayashi, Takaho Yamada, Kazuya Fujihara, and Hirohito Sone

of resolution units in the better eye. Self-reported questionnaires were used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and history of physician-diagnosed hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. Statistical Analysis For participant characteristics, continuous variables were expressed as

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Mohammad Moniruzzaman, Aya Kadota, Akihiko Shiino, Akira Fujiyoshi, Takahiro Ito, Ali Haidar Syaifullah, Naoko Miyagawa, Keiko Kondo, Takashi Hisamatsu, Hiroyoshi Segawa, Ikuo Tooyama, Hirotsugu Ueshima, Katsuyuki Miura, and for the SESSA Research Group

habits, educational achievement (years), and medication history for hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire at the baseline. The responses of the completed questionnaire were confirmed by the trained research staff members. We calculated ethanol

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Steven Loy

evolution), and we have developed our program to serve 4 different fitness levels, including a falls prevention group, and deliver a free diabetes program modified from the National Diabetes Prevention Program. The 3 WINS Fitness program is sustainable, affordable, replicable, and scalable. The problem of

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Bethany Barone Gibbs, Melissa A. Jones, John M. Jakicic, Arun Jeyabalan, Kara M. Whitaker, and Janet M. Catov

-analysis demonstrated that pregnant women participating in an exercise intervention versus control had a 38% to 41% decrease in adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO), such as gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia, 3 as well as reduced gestational weight gain (GWG). These benefits improve both