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Yuko Kuramatsu, Yuji Yamamoto and Shin-Ichi Izumi

direction. Wurdeman, Huben, and Stergiou ( 2012 ) reported that stability during motion, which was measured by variability in step length or width, depends on the general direction of progression. As a result, it is the anteroposterior direction that is primarily controlled during locomotion. Kuramatsu

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Margaret McGladrey, Angela Carman, Christy Nuetzman and Nicole Peritore

participating organizations and agencies known in the collective impact model as the backbone support organization. 17 , 18 Hanleybrown et al 18 define the necessary skills of backbone support organizations as 6 essential functions: (1) providing overall strategic direction, (2) facilitating dialog between

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Ralph Maddison, Samantha Marsh, Erica Hinckson, Scott Duncan, Sandra Mandic, Rachael Taylor and Melody Smith

Background:

In this article, we report the grades for the second New Zealand Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth, which represents a synthesis of available New Zealand evidence across 9 core indicators.

Methods:

An expert panel of physical activity (PA) researchers collated and reviewed available nationally representative survey data between March and May 2016. In the absence of new data, (2014–2016) regional level data were used to inform the direction of existing grades. Grades were assigned based on the percentage of children and youth meeting each indicator: A is 81% to 100%; B is 61% to 80%; C is 41% to 60%, D is 21% to 40%; F is 0% to 20%; INC is Incomplete data.

Results:

Overall PA, Active Play, and Government Initiatives were graded B-; Community Environments was graded B; Sport Participation and School Environment received a C+; Sedentary Behaviors and Family/Peer Support were graded C; and Active Travel was graded C-.

Conclusions:

Overall PA participation was satisfactory for young children but not for youth. The grade for PA decreased slightly from the 2014 report card; however, there was an improvement in grades for built and school environments, which may support regional and national-level initiatives for promoting PA.

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Sunnhild Bertz and Laura Purdy

The high-performance sports system is a rapidly evolving and increasingly important element of the Irish sporting landscape reflected in public policy, the direction and level of spending, and organisational/institutional evolution – all signalling a formal recognition of the high-performance sector as central to sport in Ireland. While certain aspects of high-performance sport in Ireland are beginning to be reflected in research (e.g., Guerin et al. 2008), this is yet to be extended to high performance coaching. The education, development, and support of coaches are key areas of the Coaching Strategy for Ireland (2008-2012). An understanding of high-performance coach activities and needs will become increasingly vital in underpinning the effectiveness of resources directed at high-performance coaching as Ireland seeks to reposition itself within the world’s elite in sport. The purpose of this article is to better understand the development of high-performance coaches in Ireland and the key influences on this (e.g., exposure to different coaching environments, sources of knowledge, and preferred ways of learning). It aims to explore what high-performance coaches believe has been most important in developing and fostering their coaching ‘know-how,’1 and what this may imply for future educational interventions for high-performance coaches. This article brings to light insights generated through semi-structured interviews with 10 high-performance coaches currently and/or recently working in Irish sport.

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Kathryn M. Parker, Jeanette Gustat and Janet C. Rice

Background:

People are more physically active in neighborhoods that are well designed for walking and bicycling. Building infrastructure for safer cycling is one way to promote physical activity. On-road bike lanes are one type of infrastructure hypothesized to positively impact levels of cycling. The first on-street bike lane was painted in New Orleans, LA during the spring of 2008.

Methods:

In November of 2007 and again in November 2008, trained observers conducted manual counts of cyclists riding on St. Claude Avenue in New Orleans, LA. The data collected included the number of men, women, adults, and children riding a bicycle with traffic, against traffic, and on sidewalks.

Results:

Data showed a 57% increase in the average number of riders per day (P < .001). There was a 133% increase among adult female riders (P < .001) and a 44% increase among adult male riders (P < .001). The percentage of cyclists riding in the correct direction, with the flow of traffic, increased from 73% to 82% (P < .001).

Conclusions:

Bike lanes can have a positive impact in creating a healthy physical environment. Future research should include other streets for comparison purposes and surveys to determine whether riders are substituting biking for nonactive forms of transportation.

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Sergio Jiménez-Rubio, Archit Navandar, Jesús Rivilla-García and Victor Paredes-Hernández

There are programs that evaluate previously injured athletes on tests based on change of direction and sprinting, such as the 505 agility test or the T test, although they do not specifically mention a previous hamstring strain injury, 21 despite a majority of these injuries occurring during maximal

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Bradley C. Jackson, Robert T. Medina, Stephanie H. Clines, Julie M. Cavallario and Matthew C. Hoch

joint sprain within 1 wk of the study. For subjects with bilateral CAI (10 of 16), the limb with the lowest CAIT score was tested. Testing occurred during 1 session where both the 3 taping conditions (no tape, FRT, and subtalar sling) and reach direction sequence were randomized using a concealed

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Ian McGinnis, Justin Cobb, Ryan Tierney and Anne Russ

of support, (d) the trunk position, (e) arm position, (f) the direction of head movements, (g) the directions of whole-body movements, (h) the visual input, (i) the presence of absence of a dual cognitive task, and (j) any other special circumstances. 3 Table  3 presents a summary of examples for

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Brigid M. Lynch, Suzanne C. Dixon-Suen, Andrea Ramirez Varela, Yi Yang, Dallas R. English, Ding Ding, Paul A. Gardiner and Terry Boyle

of physical activity on all-cause mortality, we would adjust for sex and age, but not waist circumference. However, if we assumed that waist circumference was primarily a confounder, the arrow direction between physical activity and waist circumference would be reversed (Figure  1B ). Under these

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Patrick O. McKeon and Jennifer M. Medina McKeon

direction of a profession’s body of knowledge. 5 Clinicians take an active role in shaping this body of knowledge by sharing their implementation and evaluation experiences in using the best available external evidence to inform clinical decisions. A CAT’s Life in Research CATs rely on the available