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evidence suggests the gastrointestinal commensal and pathogenic bacteria may potentially influence gastrointestinal perturbations in response to exertional-heat stress, with potential exercise performance and health implications. The study aimed to examine if the relative bacterial abundance and diversity

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Louise M. Burke, Linda M. Castell, Douglas J. Casa, Graeme L. Close, Ricardo J. S. Costa, Ben Desbrow, Shona L. Halson, Dana M. Lis, Anna K. Melin, Peter Peeling, Philo U. Saunders, Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo, Oliver C. Witard, Stéphane Bermon, and Trent Stellingwerff

The sport of athletics (track and field) encompasses a wide range of events involving running, walking, jumping, and throwing, in which success is underpinned by a diversity of physiological, psychological, and biomechanical attributes. Its governing body, the International Association of Athletics

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Trent Stellingwerff, Ingvill Måkestad Bovim, and Jamie Whitfield

and anaerobic ATP production, there are numerous opportunities for various nutrition interventions to make a significant training and/or race performance impact. Indeed, as an event group, middle-distance athletes might feature the greatest polarization and diversity of training periodization between

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Edgar J. Gallardo and Andrew R. Coggan

supplements used in scientific research or the putative active ingredient(s) of any nutritional supplement. Acknowledgments E. J. Gallardo was supported by the Diversity Scholars Research Program of the Center for Research and Learning at IUPUI . The publication of this study was made possible by award

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Trent Stellingwerff, James P. Morton, and Louise M. Burke

Matveyev, Bonderchuck, and Bompa (contributions reviewed by Issurin, 2010 ). Numerous approaches to periodization have emerged from this work, including classical, block, polarized, and complex models ( Issurin, 2010 ; Kiely, 2012 ). Within this diversity is a central theme: the purposeful sequencing of

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Jennifer Sygo, Alicia Kendig Glass, Sophie C. Killer, and Trent Stellingwerff

individual athlete’s requirements ( Burke et al., 2018 ). Therefore, given the diversity in training and bioenergetics across the 25 different events that comprise the field events, a multitude of ergogenic aids might be considered. An in-depth discussion is beyond the scope of this study, so the interested

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Ricardo J.S. Costa, Beat Knechtle, Mark Tarnopolsky, and Martin D. Hoffman

support for shorter running events and ultramarathon training, caution is warranted in using these guidelines for ultramarathon competition due to the large diversity of participant demographics and event characteristics. It is clear that individual assessment to determine daily and event nutrition and

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Susan Carter

equality, acceptance of diversity, intolerance of harassment and abuse, and fairness with transgender athletes. She co-founded the evidence-based advocacy group on the international stage known as Women Sport International (WSI). Professor Barbara Drinkwater As a physiologist, Barbara has had a major

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Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Viviane Grassmann, Krystn Orr, Amy C. McPherson, Guy E. Faulkner, and F. Virginia Wright

The objective of this study was to comprehensively evaluate inclusive out-of-school time physical activity programs for children/youth with physical disabilities. A search of the published literature was conducted and augmented by international expertise. A quality appraisal was conducted; only studies with quality ratings ≥60% informed our best practice recommendations. Seventeen studies were included using qualitative (n = 9), quantitative (n = 5), or mixed (n = 3) designs. Programs had a diversity of age groups, group sizes, and durations. Most programs were recreational level, involving both genders. Rehabilitation staff were the most common leaders. Outcomes focused on social skills/relationships, physical skill development, and psychological well-being, with overall positive effects shown in these areas. The best practice recommendations are consistent with an abilities-based approach emphasizing common group goals and interests; cooperative activities; mastery-oriented, individualized instruction; and developmentally appropriate, challenging activities. Results indicate that inclusive out-of-school time physical activity programs are important for positive psychosocial and physical skill development of children/youth with physical disabilities.

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Terese Wilhelmsen, Marit Sørensen, and Ørnulf N. Seippel

ability in PE may also impede positive peer relations and lead to rivalry and devaluation of diversity ( Obrusnikova & Dillon, 2012 ). Previous studies support the association between perceived mastery climate and positive correlates such as enjoyment, task orientation, and confidence in sport and PE, and