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Alisa Nana, Gary J. Slater, Arthur D. Stewart, and Louise M. Burke

Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is rapidly becoming more accessible and popular as a technique to monitor body composition, especially in athletic populations. Although studies in sedentary populations have investigated the validity of DXA assessment of body composition, few studies have examined the issues of reliability in athletic populations and most studies which involve DXA measurements of body composition provide little information on their scanning protocols. This review presents a summary of the sources of error and variability in the measurement of body composition by DXA, and develops a theoretical model of best practice to standardize the conduct and analysis of a DXA scan. Components of this protocol include standardization of subject presentation (subjects rested, overnight-fasted and in minimal clothing) and positioning on the scanning bed (centrally aligned in a standard position using custom-made positioning aids) as well as manipulation of the automatic segmentation of regional areas of the scan results. Body composition assessment implemented with such protocol ensures a high level of precision, while still being practical in an athletic setting. This ensures that any small changes in body composition are confidently detected and correctly interpreted. The reporting requirements for studies involving DXA scans of body composition include details of the DXA machine and software, subject presentation and positioning protocols, and analysis protocols.

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Ava Farley, Gary J. Slater, and Karen Hind

quantify fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) ( Ackland et al., 2012 ; Kerr et al., 2017 ). Depending on time and resources, the four most popular methods used on athletic populations are air displacement plethysmography (BOD POD), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bioelectrical impedance

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Nicole C.A. Strock, Kristen J. Koltun, Emily A. Southmayd, Nancy I. Williams, and Mary Jane De Souza

to specifically use lean body mass to estimate RMR ( Cunningham, 1980 ). Whether or not the use of lean body mass and fat-free mass interchangeably may impact the result of predicted RMR and RMR ratio is unknown. Most recently, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) modeling, based on tissue

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Motoko Taguchi, Akiko Hara, Hiroko Murata, Suguru Torii, and Takayuki Sako

full to very hungry . BW and Composition The subjects were instructed to record their own BW every morning after voiding and before breakfast using a digital weighing scale (UC-321; A&D Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) with an accuracy of 0.05 kg. Body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray

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Sarah Staal, Anders Sjödin, Ida Fahrenholtz, Karen Bonnesen, and Anna Katarina Melin

. Anthropometry and Bone Health Assessment Bone health and body composition were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; Lunar Prodigy Pro; GE Medical Systems, Madison, WI). Bone mineral density (BMD) was determined for whole body, lumbar spine (L1–L4), total left hip, and neck. Normal BMD was

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Giuseppe delli Paoli, Denise van de Laarschot, Edith C.H. Friesema, Remco Verkaik, Antonia Giacco, Rosalba Senese, Pascal P. Arp, P. Mila Jhamai, Stefano M. Pagnotta, Linda Broer, André G. Uitterlinden, Antonia Lanni, M. Carola Zillikens, and Pieter de Lange

investigate the effect of the Sportfasting protocol on body mass and, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) on circumferences, fat mass and lean mass. In addition, using genomic DNA isolated from the participants’ saliva samples, we explored the effect of 15 preselected single-nucleotide polymorphisms

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Monica Klungland Torstveit, Ida Fahrenholtz, Thomas B. Stenqvist, Øystein Sylta, and Anna Melin

squared in meter (kg/m). Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Lunar Prodigy, EnCore v. 15; GE Medical Systems, Madison, WI). All measurements were completed in a fasted state between 06:00 and 09:00 a.m. Maximal Oxygen Uptake VO 2max was predicted by asking the subjects

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D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Kathleen Woolf, and Louise Burke

errors and must be consistent with repeated measurements • Compared to UWW, may underestimate % body fat in some group of athletes and overestimate % body fat in others b • Estimate of thoracic gas volume can cause additional errors Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA): SEE = 2–3% mc h Passes filtered

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purpose of this study was to develop a predict equation to calculate body fat percentage in youth soccer athletes from skinfold measurements, considering dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) values as a reference. Eighty-one males aged 15 to 26 years old (18±2 years; 73.0±8.2 kg; 1.80±1.7 m) from four

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Samantha L. Winter, Sarah M. Forrest, Joanne Wallace, and John H. Challis

anthropometric parameters using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry: the influence on net joint moments during gait . Clin Biomech . 2004 ; 19 ( 1 ): 50 – 56 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2003.08.002 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2003.08.002 2. Pearsall DJ , Costigan PA . The effect of segment parameter error