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Hedda Berntsen and Elsa Kristiansen

coach interpersonal-style perspective to the Norwegian Ski Federation’s educational system and ultimately, if evaluated as meaningful, part of The Norwegian Olympic and Paralympic Committee and Confederation of Sports. MAPS was implemented at one of the Norwegian College of Elite Sport (NTG) schools

Open access

Ina Garthe and Ronald J. Maughan

In elite sport, where opponents are evenly matched, small factors can determine the outcome of sporting contests. Not all athletes know the value of making wise nutrition choices, but anything that might give a competitive edge, including dietary supplements, can seem attractive. Between 40% and 100% of athletes typically use supplements, depending on the type of sport, level of competition, and the definition of supplements. However, unless the athlete has a nutrient deficiency, supplementation may not improve performance and may have a detrimental effect on both performance and health. Dietary supplements are classified as a subcategory of food, so manufacturers are not required to provide evidence of product safety and efficacy, nor obtain approval from regulatory bodies before marketing supplements. This creates the potential for health risks, and serious adverse effects have been reported from the use of some dietary supplements. Athletes who compete in sports under an anti-doping code must also realize that supplement use exposes them to a risk of ingesting banned substances or precursors of prohibited substances. Government systems of regulations do not include specific laboratory testing for banned substances according to the WADA list, so a separate regulatory framework to evaluate supplements for their risk of provoking a failed doping test is needed. In the high-performance culture typical of elite sport, athletes may use supplements regardless of possible risks. A discussion around medical, physiological, cultural, and ethical questions may be warranted to ensure that the athlete has the information needed to make an informed choice.

Open access

Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener and Lars Engebretsen

Nutrition usually makes a small but potentially valuable contribution to successful performance in elite athletes, and dietary supplements can make a minor contribution to this nutrition program. Nonetheless, supplement use is widespread at all levels of sport. Products described as supplements target different issues, including the management of micronutrient deficiencies, supply of convenient forms of energy and macronutrients, and provision of direct benefits to performance or indirect benefits such as supporting intense training regimens. The appropriate use of some supplements can offer benefits to the athlete, but others may be harmful to the athlete’s health, performance, and/or livelihood and reputation if an anti-doping rule violation results. A complete nutritional assessment should be undertaken before decisions regarding supplement use are made. Supplements claiming to directly or indirectly enhance performance are typically the largest group of products marketed to athletes, but only a few (including caffeine, creatine, specific buffering agents and nitrate) have good evidence of benefits. However, responses are affected by the scenario of use and may vary widely between individuals because of factors that include genetics, the microbiome, and habitual diet. Supplements intended to enhance performance should be thoroughly trialed in training or simulated competition before implementation in competition. Inadvertent ingestion of substances prohibited under the anti-doping codes that govern elite sport is a known risk of taking some supplements. Protection of the athlete’s health and awareness of the potential for harm must be paramount, and expert professional opinion and assistance is strongly advised before embarking on supplement use.

Open access

Ronald J. Maughan

fortunately rare, but include impairments of health and performance as well as the potential for unwitting ingestion of substances that are prohibited under the anti-doping codes that govern elite sport. This issue of the International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism contains an overview

Open access

). BM indicates body mass; EMG, electromyography; RCT, randomized controlled trial; TMS, transcranial magnetic stimulation. Wile E. Coyote image licensed via carlos cardetas/Alamy Stock Photo. In the business, elite-sport, or academic setting, there is never only one way to complete a task, but there is

Open access

International Olympic Committee Expert Group on Dietary Supplements in Athletes

ingestion of substances that are prohibited under the anti-doping codes that govern elite sport, but are present in some supplement products. In some cases, the level of prohibited or toxic substances in supplements presents a health hazard for all consumers. In other cases, the content may be too small to

Open access

Iñigo Mujika and Ritva S. Taipale

scientists over the years are women (36 out of 196), and a simple count of female and male authors in the first 5 issues of IJSPP published in 2019 indicates that only 13% were women. While the world of elite sport is evolving and women have achieved leadership positions in both coaching and science

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Øyvind Skattebo and Thomas Losnegard

performance enhancement in elite sport provides useful information for coaches and scientists to evaluate the magnitude and meaningfulness of different types of interventions (training, tapering, ergogenic aids, etc). The smallest worthwhile enhancement is considered to be 0.3 times the standard deviation of

Open access

Carl Foster

very selectively, usually only 10% to 15% of training volume. If not VO 2 max, or lactate threshold or the economy of running, 14 – 16 surely something that scientists could measure must provide the definitive answer that allows them to understand elite sport performance and give us the ability to

Open access

Mitch Abrams and Michelle L. Bartlett

– 555 . PubMed ID: 9391940 10.1002/jts.2490100403 Sinden , J.L. ( 2013 ). The sociology of emotion in elite sport: Examining the role of normalization and technologies . International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 48 ( 5 ), 613 – 628 . doi:10.1177/1012690212445274 10