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Katherine A. Tamminen, Patrick Gaudreau, Carolyn E. McEwen and Peter R.E. Crocker

Efforts to regulate emotions can influence others, and interpersonal emotion regulation within teams may affect athletes’ own affective and motivational outcomes. We examined adolescent athletes’ (N = 451, N teams = 38) self- and interpersonal emotion regulation, as well as associations with peer climate, sport enjoyment, and sport commitment within a multilevel model of emotion regulation in teams. Results of multilevel Bayesian structural equation modeling showed that athletes’ self-worsening emotion regulation strategies were negatively associated with enjoyment while other-improving emotion regulation strategies were positively associated enjoyment and commitment. The team-level interpersonal emotion regulation climate and peer motivational climates were also associated with enjoyment and commitment. Team-level factors moderated some of the relationships between athletes’ emotion regulation with enjoyment and commitment. These findings extend previous research by examining interpersonal emotion regulation within teams using a multilevel approach, and they demonstrate the importance of person- and team-level factors for athletes’ enjoyment and commitment.

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René van Bavel, Gabriele Esposito, Tom Baranowski and Néstor Duch-Brown

(the degree to which individuals think behavior is under their control, which also has a direct impact on behavior). MGDB expanded TPB by introducing the constructs of desire (future orientation evaluating outcomes as desirable or undesirable) and positive and negative anticipated emotions

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Chad Seifried and Matthew Papatheodorou

The main purpose of this article is to provide suggestions to coaches on how they can assist young athletes in pressure packed situations to realize an ideal performance state. Suggestions provided address controlling emotions, adopting coping methods, practicing under game situations, embracing physical routines along with mental rehearsals, and engaging in self reflection/challenges. The strategies and discussions below should appear as vital for coaches attempting to help assist a young person’s future mental and emotional development. Furthermore, it should educate coaches and potentially others (e.g., spectators and media) on how to better handle these situations or instances so they can avoid the production of negative consequences on the lives of young people (e.g., choking label, social anxiety, poor self-esteem or image).

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David Light Shields and Brenda Light Bredemeier

Most coaches assume that athletes already know what “competition” means and how to engage in it. We propose, in contrast, that competition is often misunderstood and that coaches need to intentionally teach about it, and help their athletes come to appreciate its purpose and values. Social scientists, too, have often misunderstood competition and, as a result, have frequently concluded that it leads to such negative outcomes as hostility, prejudice and aggression. To clarify the meaning of competition, it is helpful to distinguish it from a related process that can also occur within a contest. In keeping with the word’s etymology, we define competition as: a form of partnership with an opponent that enacts an enjoyable quest for excellence.In contrast, when participants view the contest not as a partnership for excellence, but as a miniature battle or war, contesting should be designated de-competition. De-competition is a separate, distinguishable process with its own dynamics. The distinction between competition and de-competition has significant and far-reaching practical implications, since the two processes tap different motives, focus on different goals, foster a different type of relationship with opponents, lead to different approaches to rules and officials, stimulates different types of emotions, and promote different ideas about what an ideal contest entails. When coaches deliberately teach and foster true competition, competition can be reclaimed for excellence, ethics, and enjoyment.

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Tobias Lundgren, Gustaf Reinebo, Markus Näslund and Thomas Parling

executing dribbles and passes, team play, intense emotion and momentary decision making in a competitive setting. This calls for psychological flexibility from players in order to succeed. Recently, an instrument measuring psychological flexibility in ice hockey, the Values, Acceptance and Mindfulness Scale

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Daniel Birrer

-behavioral therapy (CBT) methods. After several years of working as an applied sport psychologist, I have found CBT methods limited, because I have experienced that sometimes athletes have many problems trying to control their thoughts and emotions. To address this problem, I started to use third-wave CBTs, which

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Jenny H. Conviser, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Riley Nickols

-based psychotherapeutic modalities are utilized in best practice ED treatment plans. The primary targets of the therapeutic modalities will include improved emotion identification, expression and regulation. In addition, improved body image, normalized patterns of eating, balanced nutrition and restored body weight, as

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Maureen R. Weiss, Lindsay E. Kipp, Alison Phillips Reichter, Sarah M. Espinoza and Nicole D. Bolter

Girls’ Behaviors Girls, coaches, caregivers, and school personnel discussed whether they observed changes in girls’ social, emotional, and physical behaviors. Similar higher-order themes emerged for all stakeholders: increased positive emotional behaviors, emotion management, increased positive social

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Nathan A. Reis, Kent C. Kowalski, Amber D. Mosewich and Leah J. Ferguson

-conscious emotions, emotional pain, difficult sporting experiences, and dropout ( Mesagno, Harvey, & Janelle, 2012 ; Mosewich, Kowalski, Sabiston, Sedgwick, & Tracy, 2011 ). Therefore, it is critical that athletes have the skills to effectively cope with challenges in ways that enhance their overall sporting

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Mitch Abrams and Michelle L. Bartlett

symptomatic at all. Because of a sport culture that encourages obedience and the suppression of emotions ( Sinden, 2013 ), athletes may struggle in ways that don’t mimic traditional clinical features. The clinician must be educated about trauma-informed care and the athlete culture, to maximize the likelihood