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Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam Tenforde and Margo Mountjoy

Track and field athletes have intense physiological demands and require optimized nutrition ( Burke et al., 2019 ; Slater et al., 2018 ; Stellingwerff et al., 2018 ; Sygo et al., 2019 ). Track and field athletes may experience low energy availability (LEA) due to disordered eating (DE) behavior

Open access

Graeme L. Close, Craig Sale, Keith Baar and Stephane Bermon

leafy kind) are likely to be useful sources of the main nutrients that support bone health. Of the more specific issues for the athlete, undoubtedly the biggest factor is the avoidance of low energy availability, which is essential to avoid negative consequences for bone ( Papageorgiou et al., 2018a

Open access

Jennifer Sygo, Alicia Kendig Glass, Sophie C. Killer and Trent Stellingwerff

the training-specific requirements of developing speed and power, while also supporting good energy availability to fuel training and prevent injury and illness, occasionally, brief periods of modest energy deficit may be required to help jumpers to attain peak power-to-weight ratio for competition

Open access

Louise M. Burke, Linda M. Castell, Douglas J. Casa, Graeme L. Close, Ricardo J. S. Costa, Ben Desbrow, Shona L. Halson, Dana M. Lis, Anna K. Melin, Peter Peeling, Philo U. Saunders, Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo, Oliver C. Witard, Stéphane Bermon and Trent Stellingwerff

volume requires dietary energy and CHO support, especially for high quality and race practice workouts • High power to weight ratio (i.e., low body mass/fat content) associated with success but poses another risk for low energy availability. • Race success requires high availability of economical CHO

Open access

Trent Stellingwerff, James P. Morton and Louise M. Burke

unique nutrition periodization challenges, such as body comp optimization during tapering, optimizing recovery protocols, to acute competition specific ergogenic aids (e.g., caffeine, sodium bicarbonate, etc.). Note . EA = EI – EEE/fat-free mass. CHO = carbohydrate; EA = energy availability; EI = energy

Open access

Louise M. Burke, Asker E. Jeukendrup, Andrew M. Jones and Martin Mooses

assessment of anthropometric, hematological, and performance metrics over a 9-year career demonstrated a periodized approach. During the general preparation phase (September–April), the athlete was ∼2–4% over ideal race body mass (BM) and body fat (%), with optimal energy availability being prioritized. Body

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Joanne G. Mirtschin, Sara F. Forbes, Louise E. Cato, Ida A. Heikura, Nicki Strobel, Rebecca Hall and Louise M. Burke

changes in body composition, each athlete’s energy intake was set to provide energy availability of ∼40 kcal·kg lean BM −1 ·day −1 . The real-world experience of a loss of fat mass of ∼1–1.5 kg over the 4-week period of diet intervention and testing was permitted, and each athlete could request additional

Open access

Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo and Majke Jorgensen

able to influence energy availability through these pathways may favorably affect sprint exercise performance. After reviewing the metabolic demands of sprinting, several supplements might benefit the sprint athlete, whether in training or competition, and these are summarized in Table  5 and

Open access

Trent Stellingwerff, Ingvill Måkestad Bovim and Jamie Whitfield

training-induced nutritional adaptation. A question mark (?) highlights the requirement for more scientific validation. ATP = adenosine triphosphate; CHO = carbohydrate; EA = energy availability; FFM = fat-free mass; HR = heart rate; La = lactate; LT = lactate threshold; NM = neuromuscular; PCr

Open access

-body oxidative capacity and endurance exercise performance following prolonged endurance exercise training in healthy, young males. Low Energy Availability Assessed by a Sport-Specific Questionnaire and Clinical Interview Indicative of Bone Health, Endocrine Profile and Cycling Performance in Competitive Male