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Stephan R. Fisher, Justin H. Rigby, Joni A. Mettler and Kevin W. McCurdy

) Energy, J 4 4 41.7 39.37 417 J total (208.50 J each lower limb) Energy density, J/cm 2 4 4 1.5 (red) and 4.5 (infrared) 0.85 (super-pulsed infrared laser), 5 (red diodes), and 5.83 (infrared diodes) 1.5 (red) and 4.5 (infrared) Abbreviation: LEDs, light-emitting diodes. Photobiomodulation therapy

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Dimitrios Poulimeneas, Maria I. Maraki, Eleni Karfopoulou, Yannis Koutras, Stavrie Chrysostomou, Costas A. Anastasiou, Stavros A. Kavouras and Mary Yannakoulia

00416.x 10440589 6. Cox TL , Malpede CZ , Desmond RA , et al . Physical activity patterns during weight maintenance following a low-energy density dietary intervention . Obesity . 2007 ; 15 ( 5 ): 1226 – 1232 . doi:10.1038/oby.2007.144 17495199 10.1038/oby.2007.144 7. Phelan S , Wyatt

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Joanne G. Mirtschin, Sara F. Forbes, Louise E. Cato, Ida A. Heikura, Nicki Strobel, Rebecca Hall and Louise M. Burke

associated with a lower food mass and a lower intake and energy density of micronutrients than were the HCHO and PCHO diets. These findings are intuitive, given the extreme target (75–80% of energy) from an energy-dense macronutrient and the need to eliminate or restrict many nutrient-dense or fortified

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Gregory A. Hand, Robin P. Shook, Daniel P. O’Connor, Madison M. Kindred, Sarah Schumacher, Clemens Drenowatz, Amanda E. Paluch, Stephanie Burgess, John E. Blundell and Steven N. Blair

energy intake = 1020 Δ FFM Δ t + 9500 Δ FM Δ t + EE , where ΔFFM and ΔFM represent the changes in fat-free mass and fat mass. 21 The energy densities of fat-free mass and fat mass are estimated at 1020 and 9500 kcal/kg, respectively. 23 Statistical Analyses Frequencies and distributions were calculated

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Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam Tenforde and Margo Mountjoy

during periods of high-intensity training, especially when combined with adherence to ultrahealthy or “clean” eating with low energy density diets ( Burke et al., 2018c ; Melin et al., 2016 ). Energy intake may be suboptimal due to other factors including lack of financial or time resources as well as

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Shona L. Halson, Louise M. Burke and Jeni Pearce

specific training/event requirements, there may need to be additional focus on fuel needs, energy concerns (e.g., provision of low energy density options, portion control), or the provision of at-risk nutrients (e.g., calcium, iron). • With large groups, special needs of some individuals (e

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Dana M. Lis, Daniel Kings and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

-and-Field Athletes Meeting but not exceeding energy needs is a foundation of sports nutrition. Difficulty in meeting energy requirements on a vegetarian diet may be due to food choices that are excessively high in fiber or of low energy density some track-and-field athletes are poorly prepared to make healthy

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Jennifer Sygo, Alicia Kendig Glass, Sophie C. Killer and Trent Stellingwerff

, but strategic caloric manipulation that prioritizes lower energy density, higher nutrient food choices, and timing of the ingestion of CHO and PRO, along with event-specific strength work, can help athletes to control BM gains that may decrease power-to-weight ratio. Ideally, any changes in BM that do

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Louise M. Burke, Asker E. Jeukendrup, Andrew M. Jones and Martin Mooses

personal tolerance of limited food variety, and reduced satiety/hunger. • The diet can be integrated with a carbohydrate-loading protocol and may even assist with the achievement of targets for large amounts of carbohydrate intake due to the increased energy density of food choices. • Meals and snacks