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Jennifer Sygo, Alicia Kendig Glass, Sophie C. Killer and Trent Stellingwerff

training and competition demands of jumpers, throwers, and CE athletes (hereafter, referred to collectively as field event athletes), other reviews in this IAAF nutrition consensus series will be referenced, and this review will focus on novel nutrition and ergogenic supplement interventions and strategies

Open access

Romain Meeusen and Lieselot Decroix

remain unclear, but despite a good rationale for its use, evidence of an ergogenic benefit of tyrosine supplementation during prolonged exercise is limited ( Meeusen & Watson, 2007 ). Carbohydrates and Central Fatigue Another nutritional strategy that may influence the development of central fatigue is

Open access

Trent Stellingwerff, Ingvill Måkestad Bovim and Jamie Whitfield

before the warm-up athletes should aim to drink 400–600 ml water or sports drink. Timing of prerace snacks and ergogenic aids are important. Eat last meal 1–4 hr prior the warm-up. And follow the guidelines for caffeine, bicarbonate, or nitrate as discussed in this paper. Race tactics is crucial for

Open access

Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo and Majke Jorgensen

–18 years Adolescent ( n  = 26) 55 8.4 ± 1.6 153 273 ± 54 5.1 ± 1.1 78 ± 15 1.5 ± 0.3 69 ± 17 30 ± 5 7-Day diary Aerenhouts et al. ( 2008 ) Carbohydrate The ergogenic potential of carbohydrate availability for sprint athletes is poorly understood. There is evidence that maintenance of an extremely low

Open access

Ronald J. Maughan, Susan M. Shirreffs and Alan Vernec

and Chemical Toxicology, 50 , 3826 – 3832 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.fct.2012.07.006 10.1016/j.fct.2012.07.006 Vernec , A. , Stear , S.J. , Burke , L.M. , & Castell , L.M. ( 2013 ). A–Z of nutritional supplements: Dietary supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and

Open access

Eric S. Rawson, Mary P. Miles and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

to exercise, improving brain performance, decreasing delayed onset muscle soreness or pain, reducing injury severity, enhancing recovery from injury, reducing gastrointestinal problems, and decreasing respiratory tract infection illness load. For the most part, these effects are not ergogenic, but

Open access

Kristen D. Dieffenbach, Larry Lauer and Dennis A. Johnson

Ethical concerns regarding fair play, coach athlete relationships, use of ergogenic aids, and the power dynamic inherent in coaching have been raised by those inside and outside the profession. Standards of coaching behavior and written coaching ethics are a part of most youth through elite level sport organizations. For example, the ethics code of the National Federation of High Schools and the U.S. Olympic Code of Ethics for Coaches are posted on the organization websites. Unfortunately, the “sticky” or gray situations that occur in real life often are not clearly covered in coaching ethical codes. The pressure to make decisions for reasons other than “right thing to do” is immense. These situations often do not have a straightforward answer, and the skills necessary to navigate the gray areas are often underdeveloped. This presentation discusses three approaches to teaching and reinforcing ethical thinking and problem-solving skills within different coaching education models. Best practices for teaching ethical guidelines both in and out of the coaching education classroom are discussed, and an emphasis is placed on the role of coaching education in teaching the skills critical for positive coach behavior.

Open access

Ina Garthe and Ronald J. Maughan

, categories include sports foods (gels, bars, drinks, protein powders), vitamins and minerals, herbals and botanicals, and ergogenic supplements (Table  1 ). In addition, there is a category which includes supplements for weight loss, products for increased libido, and there are also gluten-free, lactose

Open access

Peter Peeling, Martyn J. Binnie, Paul S.R. Goods, Marc Sim and Louise M. Burke

performance, many lack robust evidence of an ergogenic benefit. Furthermore, some may actually impair performance, often due to gastrointestinal (GI) concerns, while others are potentially detrimental to an athlete’s health. Finally, numerous ingredients in commercial supplements, sometimes presenting as

Open access

Trent Stellingwerff, James P. Morton and Louise M. Burke

process and highlights several periodized nutrition examples, such as the macronutrient (CHO and PRO), micronutrient (iron), and ergogenic aid (creatine) examples of macro-, meso-, and microperiodization, respectively. However, the narrative of this review will exclusively focus on energy and CHO