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Ricardo J.S. Costa, Beat Knechtle, Mark Tarnopolsky and Martin D. Hoffman

evidence from sport nutrition professionals suggests a growing number of elite and amateur ultramarathon runners are purposely attempting, with or without professional guidance, adherence to low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) or ketogenic diets, aiming to enhance maximal and relative fat oxidation capacity

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count during walking and running in the laboratory setting. Effects of Daily and Intermittent Intake of New Zealand Blackcurrant Extract on Whole-Body Fat Oxidation During Moderate Intensity Exercise in Males MA Şahin 1,2 P Bilgiç 2 , S Montanari 1 , MET Willems 1 1 Institute of Sport, University of

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Trent Stellingwerff, James P. Morton and Louise M. Burke

glucose, provides an effective and dominant fuel source for performance across a wide variety of events in athletics ( Hawley & Leckey, 2015 ). Indeed, it has been known for nearly a century that 100% CHO produces ∼5.5% more ATP per liter of oxygen consumed than compared with 100% fat oxidation ( Krogh

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David M. Shaw, Fabrice Merien, Andrea Braakhuis, Daniel Plews, Paul Laursen and Deborah K. Dulson

fat oxidation . Medicine & Science in Sport & Exercise, 34 ( 1 ), 92 – 97 . PubMed ID: 11782653 doi:10.1097/00005768-200201000-00015 10.1097/00005768-200201000-00015 Areta , J.L. , & Hopkins , W.G. ( 2018 ). Skeletal muscle glycogen content at rest and during endurance exercise in humans: A

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Peter Peeling, Martyn J. Binnie, Paul S.R. Goods, Marc Sim and Louise M. Burke

.D. , Myers , S.D. , Blacker , S.D. , & Willems , M.E. ( 2015 ). New Zealand blackcurrant extract improves cycling performance and fat oxidation in cyclists . European Journal of Applied Physiology, 115 ( 11 ), 2357 – 2365 . PubMed doi:10.1007/s00421-015-3215-8 10.1007/s00421-015-3215-8 Cooper , R

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Brianna J. Stubbs, Pete J. Cox, Tom Kirk, Rhys D. Evans and Kieran Clarke

). Nutritional ketone salts increase fat oxidation but impair high-intensity exercise performance in healthy adult males . Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 42 ( 10 ), 1031 – 1035 . PubMed ID: 28750585 doi:10.1139/apnm-2016-0641 10.1139/apnm-2016-0641 Peart , D.J. , Siegler , J.C. , & Vince

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Louise M. Burke, Asker E. Jeukendrup, Andrew M. Jones and Martin Mooses

availability ( Burke et al., 2017 ). Meanwhile, both dietary approaches were associated with better race outcomes than chronic (3.5 week) exposure to a ketogenic low CHO, high-fat diet, despite its achievement of substantial (∼2.5 ×) increases in muscle fat oxidation ( Burke et al., 2017 ). This contrasts with

Open access

Louise M. Burke, Linda M. Castell, Douglas J. Casa, Graeme L. Close, Ricardo J. S. Costa, Ben Desbrow, Shona L. Halson, Dana M. Lis, Anna K. Melin, Peter Peeling, Philo U. Saunders, Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo, Oliver C. Witard, Stéphane Bermon and Trent Stellingwerff

relatively unlimited pool size and capacity to support exercise at intensities up to ∼75–80% VO 2 peak. However, it should also be noted that most ultramarathon runners already have a high capacity for fat oxidation, regardless of dietary background. Furthermore, although targeted adaptation to a high

Open access

Amy J. Hector and Stuart M. Phillips

loss is the creation of an energy imbalance resulting in a net energy expenditure, and a number of supplements have been proposed to promote fat loss through a variety of mechanisms including increased fat oxidation and thermogenic effects (increased energy expenditure) ( Jeukendrup & Randell, 2011

Open access

Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener and Lars Engebretsen

/or lipolytic-enhancing agent Small-to-trivial effect ( Jurgens et al., 2012 ) α-Lipoic acid No clear role, but possible antioxidant Small-to-trivial effect ( Kucukgoncu et al., 2017 ) Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) Changes membrane fluidity favoring enhanced fat oxidation Small-to-trivial effect ( Onakpoya et