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Dana M. Lis, Daniel Kings and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

). Validation is lacking, and therefore, these alternative testing methods are not currently recommended. For track-and-field athletes, food avoidance based on dubious test results may introduce unnecessary food restriction and associated risks, which are discussed throughout this review. Established food

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Laura K. Fewell, Riley Nickols, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Cheri A. Levinson

restriction and excessive exercise will enhance sport performance and are not, in fact, problematic. Indeed, certain aspects of sport, such as mental toughness and commitment to training, may exacerbate ED risk and behaviors (i.e., food restriction, excessive exercise), yet these factors are often normalized

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Jenny H. Conviser, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Riley Nickols

unlabeled. For example, the diver, distance runner, or gymnast may slip into food restriction, and resulting anorexia may be attributed to vanity rather than the relevant sport cultures required thin aesthetic. Focusing on the individual athlete alone as the “problem” and the “patient” without regard for

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Joanne G. Mirtschin, Sara F. Forbes, Louise E. Cato, Ida A. Heikura, Nicki Strobel, Rebecca Hall and Louise M. Burke

-free needs more easily than the PCHO and HCHO diets; however, nut or dairy allergies would create further challenges with food restrictions. These issues are of importance in critiquing the larger or long-term outcomes of dietary interventions under consideration, and potentially identifying other factors

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Jennifer Sygo, Alicia Kendig Glass, Sophie C. Killer and Trent Stellingwerff

to decrease BM that involve food restriction resulting in excessive glycogen depletion are not appropriate due to the repeated explosive activities required for training and competition. Conversely, given that glycogen storage also results in whole-body/muscle water storage and weight gain ( Burke et

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Louise M. Burke, Graeme L. Close, Bronwen Lundy, Martin Mooses, James P. Morton and Adam S. Tenforde

practices that may compromise health. Common methods to make weight include food restriction, prolonged sweating, and even forced vomiting, known in the horse-racing industry as “flipping” ( Dolan et al., 2011 ; Wilson et al., 2014b ). Jockeys typically consume inadequate diets ( Dolan et al., 2011 ; Poon

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Louise M. Burke, Asker E. Jeukendrup, Andrew M. Jones and Martin Mooses

potentially valuable loss of body mass, with fewer disadvantages to the dietary preparation for competition than food restriction. • The reduction in body mass associated with this dietary practice in athletes is highly variable and individualistic ( Reale et al., 2017 ), but an average response of ∼500 g