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Beth G. Clarkson, Elwyn Cox and Richard C. Thelwell

Background In stark contrast to a significant growth in women’s participation in football (soccer) over the past 20 years, such growth is not reflected in the number of women coaches at all levels of expertise ( Williams, 2013 ). Recent reports indicate that 80% of coaching positions in European

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Heidi A. Wayment, Ann H. Huffman, Monica Lininger and Patrick C. Doyle

Key Points ▸ This study used social network analysis (SNA) to examine relationships between social structure, identity perceptions, and concussion-reporting support in an NCAA Division I football team. ▸ Team belonging was positively correlated with having more friends and being highly connected

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Mette Rørth, Tine Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Prue Cormie, John L. Oliffe and Julie Midtgaard

). This knowledge, including burgeoning evidence on the superiority of recreational football (i.e., soccer) in the achievement of health effects in healthy individuals including untrained, older men ( Krustrup et al., 2009 ), inspired us to develop the “FC (football club) Prostate” research initiative

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Alireza Esmaeili, Andrew M. Stewart, William G. Hopkins, George P. Elias and Robert J. Aughey


Detrimental changes in tendon structure increase the risk of tendinopathies. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of individual internal and external training loads and leg dominance on changes in the Achilles and patellar tendon structure.


The internal structure of the Achilles and patellar tendons of both limbs of 26 elite Australian footballers was assessed using ultrasound tissue characterization at the beginning and the end of an 18-wk preseason. Linear-regression analysis was used to estimate the effects of training load on changes in the proportion of aligned and intact tendon bundles for each side. Standardization and magnitude-based inferences were used to interpret the findings.


Possibly to very likely small increases in the proportion of aligned and intact tendon bundles occurred in the dominant Achilles (initial value 81.1%; change, ±90% confidence limits 1.6%, ±1.0%), nondominant Achilles (80.8%; 0.9%, ±1.0%), dominant patellar (75.8%; 1.5%, ±1.5%), and nondominant patellar (76.8%; 2.7%, ±1.4%) tendons. Measures of training load had inconsistent effects on changes in tendon structure; eg, there were possibly to likely small positive effects on the structure of the nondominant Achilles tendon, likely small negative effects on the dominant Achilles tendon, and predominantly no clear effects on the patellar tendons.


The small and inconsistent effects of training load are indicative of the role of recovery between tendon-overloading (training) sessions and the multivariate nature of the tendon response to load, with leg dominance a possible influencing factor.

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Brad Vickers and Brendon Hale

The knowledge and experience acquired in Continued Professional Development (CPD) is considered self-development and is dependent upon the individual’s perception of control over professional growth (Chalofsky, 1990). The purpose of this study was to analyze coaches’ self-development perceptions through Chalofsky’s (1990) eight constructs. An inductive analysis revealed that novice coaches lacked responsibility for self-development and believed the head coach to be responsible for athlete results. Intermediate coaches had increased perception of control that enabled them to use their own coaching styles as they relied on experiences and daily reflection to improve. Similarly, expert coaches perceived full responsibility for their self-development, and realized the dependence of their assistant coaches as well. The findings supported Chalofsky’s (1990) contention that self-development is dependent upon individual perception of control.

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Marcos de Noronha, Eleisha K. Lay, Madelyn R. Mcphee, George Mnatzaganian and Guilherme S. Nunes

American football 1 team NR 15 y NR 48 First quarter: 8 Second quarter: 14 Third quarter: 16 Fourth quarter: 10 O’Connor et al 29 Gaelic football 217 (2 teams) 19.3 (1.9) 1 season 11,398 h 8 First quarter: 0 Second quarter: 1 Third quarter: 3 Fourth quarter: 4 Abbreviation: NR, not reported. Study

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Jeremy Hapeta, Rochelle Stewart-Withers and Farah Palmer

: Initially, we overview the sport for social change literature globally to locate the need of this article. Following this, the next section introduces the two cases from provincial and national NZ rugby (NZR) settings: the Taranaki Rugby Football Union (TRFU) and Feats’ (Pae Tawhiti) Māori and Pasifika

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Bård Erlend Solstad, Andreas Ivarsson, Ellen Merethe Haug and Yngvar Ommundsen

(T2). Method Participants Data are part of the Norwegian intervention arm of the larger Promoting Adolescent Physical Activity (PAPA) project ( Duda et al., 2013 ). 3 The study sample comprised 169 youth football coaches (males n  = 152; females n  = 17) ranging in age from 16 to 60 years ( M

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Chelsey Klimek, Christopher Ashbeck, Alexander J. Brook and Chris Durall

was similar to reported injury rates in Olympic weightlifting (3.3/1000 h trained), 6 gymnastics (3.1/1000 h trained), 7 and rugby (3/1000 h trained). 8 Sports with higher reported rates of injury than CrossFit include American high school football (140 per 1000 exposure hours), 9 , 10 ice hockey

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Wycliffe W. Simiyu Njororai

Association football is one of the most popular sports with more than 265 million players worldwide and 209 national associations. The climax on the calendar is the FIFA World Cup, an international football competition contested by the men’s national football teams of the member nations. This championship has been held every four years since the first tournament in 1930 with exceptions in 1942 and 1946 due to World War II. Women too have a World Cup tournament that started in 1991 and is held every four years. The purpose of this commentary is to analyze the downward trend in scoring at World Cup tournaments from 1930 to 2010, with the aim of providing coaches, educators and sport scientists with possible reasons for the decline.