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Sang-Ho Lee, Steven D. Scott, Elizabeth J. Pekas, Jeong-Gi Lee and Song-Young Park

However, it seems more likely that octacosanol stimulates the conversion of lipids into energy, as an animal study reported that octacosanol intake resulted in greater serum free fatty acid levels, greater free fatty acid oxidation, and a decreased serum TG concentration when compared with a CON group. 9

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Trent Stellingwerff, James P. Morton and Louise M. Burke

technologies to investigate cellular signaling events over the past decade has expanded insights into the role of nutritional support in promoting adaptations to exercise. It is now known that many substrates, and in particular muscle glycogen and plasma free fatty acids, act not only as fuels for the exercise

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Trent Stellingwerff, Ingvill Måkestad Bovim and Jamie Whitfield

- to 400-m athletes have >60% Type IIx fiber types, while most middle-distance athletes Type I fibers range from 40% to 70% ( Costill et al., 1976 ). ATP = adenosine triphosphate; FFA = free fatty acids; PCr = phosphocreatine; prod. = production. Data adapted from Astrand et al. ( 1986 ), Costill et

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Shona L. Halson, Louise M. Burke and Jeni Pearce

insulin-stimulated uptake of branched-chain amino acids into the muscle and increasing the ratio of free TRP to branched-chain amino acids, and (c) ingestion of a high-fat meal that may increase free fatty acids and result in increased free Trp, or (d) strenuous exercise causes mobilization of

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Louise M. Burke, John A. Hawley, Asker Jeukendrup, James P. Morton, Trent Stellingwerff and Ronald J. Maughan

 = hexokinase; p38 = p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, also known as MAPK; PPAR = peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor; PGC-1α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha; PDK4 = pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4; FFA = free-fatty acids. Table 3 Common Sequences in Which CHO