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Lindy M. Castell, David C. Nieman, Stéphane Bermon and Peter Peeling

carbohydrates (CHO) and electrolytes also play an important role in the genesis of RD. Indeed, drinks with a high concentration of CHOs and increased osmolality delay gastric emptying and may cause a shift of water in the gut lumen, favoring the onset of diarrhea. Conversely, the addition of a moderate amount

Open access

Emma L. Sweeney, Daniel J. Peart, Irene Kyza, Thomas Harkes, Jason G. Ellis and Ian H. Walshe

. Methodological differences may explain this discrepancy, as an IVGTT was employed by Ortega et al., whereas we used an OGTT. Gastric emptying plays a role during the OGTT, whereas this is bypassed when glucose is injected rather than ingested orally. Gastric emptying rate may be slowed by intermittent high

Open access

Brianna J. Stubbs, Pete J. Cox, Tom Kirk, Rhys D. Evans and Kieran Clarke

can impact on gastric emptying, ketone absorption, and may also alter tolerability ( Shivva et al., 2016 ; Vandoorne et al., 2017 ). Conclusion Previous reports have provided simplistic insights into symptoms associated with exogenous ketone drinks. This work gives the first detailed description of

Open access

Ricardo J.S. Costa, Beat Knechtle, Mark Tarnopolsky and Martin D. Hoffman

.e., delayed gastric emptying and intestinal transit, impaired digestion and intestinal absorption) consistently observed in response to exercise stress per se ( Costa et al., 2017a , 2017b ; Horner et al., 2015 ; Leiper, 2015 ). However, it appears that training status may influence food and fluid intake tolerance

Open access

Alan J. McCubbin, Bethanie A. Allanson, Joanne N. Caldwell Odgers, Michelle M. Cort, Ricardo J.S. Costa, Gregory R. Cox, Siobhan T. Crawshay, Ben Desbrow, Eliza G. Freney, Stephanie K. Gaskell, David Hughes, Chris Irwin, Ollie Jay, Benita J. Lalor, Megan L.R. Ross, Gregory Shaw, Julien D. Périard and Louise M. Burke

intake during a competitive event. Fluid choices during exercise should consider substrate requirements, electrolyte content, palatability, and access. Despite previous concern about delayed gastric emptying associated with the addition of solutes to an exercise beverage, carbohydrate-containing drinks

Open access

Douglas J. Casa, Samuel N. Cheuvront, Stuart D. Galloway and Susan M. Shirreffs

.1097/00005768-200108000-00019 Leiper , J.B. ( 2015 ). Fate of ingested fluids: Factors affecting gastric emptying and intestinal absorption of beverages in humans . Nutrition Reviews, 73 ( Suppl. 2 ), 57 – 72 . doi:10.1093/nutrit/nuv032 10.1093/nutrit/nuv032 Lopez , R.M. , Casa , D.J. , Jensen , K.A. , Stearns , R

Open access

Louise M. Burke, Asker E. Jeukendrup, Andrew M. Jones and Martin Mooses

, rather than gastric emptying, hepatic glucose extraction, muscle glucose uptake, or muscle glucose oxidation ( Jeukendrup, 2014 ). However, as reviewed by Jeukendrup ( 2017b ), sodium-dependent glucose transporter abundance and activity in animals is increased by a CHO-rich diet; furthermore, chronic

Open access

Louise M. Burke, Linda M. Castell, Douglas J. Casa, Graeme L. Close, Ricardo J. S. Costa, Ben Desbrow, Shona L. Halson, Dana M. Lis, Anna K. Melin, Peter Peeling, Philo U. Saunders, Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo, Oliver C. Witard, Stéphane Bermon and Trent Stellingwerff

, monosaccharides, and polyols]) in susceptible individuals, the use of bicarbonate or caffeine as performance supplements, and within race intake of drinks of high CHO content and osmolality. The stomach and gut can possibly be trained to improve tolerance, gastric emptying, and absorption during exercise. Other

Open access

carbohydrate (CHO) solutions during endurance running can contribute to gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS), due to reduced gastric emptying and/or bacterial fermentation of malabsorbed CHO. A CHO-electrolyte beverage that produces a pH-sensitive hydrogel (HYD) claims to reduce GIS by increasing gastric emptying

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Margo Mountjoy, Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen, Louise Burke, Kathryn E. Ackerman, Cheri Blauwet, Naama Constantini, Constance Lebrun, Bronwen Lundy, Anna Melin, Nanna Meyer, Roberta Sherman, Adam S. Tenforde, Monica Klungland Torstveit and Richard Budgett

bradycardia, hypotension, and arrhythmias ( Spaulding-Barclay et al., 2016 ). Gastrointestinal In the severe LEA state of AN, negative health influences on the full gastrointestinal tract such as altered sphincter function, delayed gastric emptying, constipation, and increased intestinal transit time, have