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David M. Shaw, Fabrice Merien, Andrea Braakhuis, Daniel Plews, Paul Laursen and Deborah K. Dulson

The interaction of energetic substrates during exercise has been investigated for over 100 years ( Hawley et al., 2015 ). Endurance performance up to ∼3–4 hr appears to be carbohydrate dependent (skeletal muscle and hepatic glycogen, blood glucose, lactate and exogenous sources; Hawley & Leckey

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Gareth A. Wallis and Anna Wittekind

The consumption of carbohydrate before, during, and after exercise is a central feature of the athlete’s diet, particularly those competing in endurance sports. Sucrose is a carbohydrate present within the diets of athletes. Whether sucrose, by virtue of its component monosaccharides glucose and fructose, exerts a meaningful advantage for athletes over other carbohydrate types or blends is unclear. This narrative reviews the literature on the influence of sucrose, relative to other carbohydrate types, on exercise performance or the metabolic factors that may underpin exercise performance. Inference from the research to date suggests that sucrose appears to be as effective as other highly metabolizable carbohydrates (e.g., glucose, glucose polymers) in providing an exogenous fuel source during endurance exercise, stimulating the synthesis of liver and muscle glycogen during exercise recovery and improving endurance exercise performance. Nonetheless, gaps exist in our understanding of the metabolic and performance consequences of sucrose ingestion before, during, and after exercise relative to other carbohydrate types or blends, particularly when more aggressive carbohydrate intake strategies are adopted. While further research is recommended and discussed in this review, based on the currently available scientific literature it would seem that sucrose should continue to be regarded as one of a variety of options available to help athletes achieve their specific carbohydrate-intake goals.

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Romain Meeusen and Lieselot Decroix

 al. ( 2011 ) + (in heat)       150 mg/kg Tumilty et al. ( 2012 ) /       2 × 150 mg/kg Coull et al. ( 2015 )     + (in heat; soccer-specific test)   2 × 150 mg/kg or 2 × 75 mg/kg Coull et al. ( 2016 )     / (in heat) Glucose Review Messier ( 2004 ) +       Review Williams and Rollo ( 2015 ) + (in team sports

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Ítalo R. Lemes, Rômulo A. Fernandes, Bruna C. Turi-Lynch, Jamile S. Codogno, Luana C. de Morais, Kelly A.K. Koyama and Henrique L. Monteiro

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors, including abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, blood pressure, and elevated fasting glucose (impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes mellitus). MetS is a predictor of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. 1

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Flavoured Dairy Milk Beverage Consumption on Gastrointestinal Symptoms, Breath Hydrogen and Blood Glucose Responses in Endurance Athletes Isabella Russo, MNutr 1 ; Alan McCubbin, BNutr 1 ; Judi Porter, PhD 1,2 ; Louise Burke, PhD 3 ; Ricardo J.S Costa, PhD 1 1 Monash University, Department of Nutrition

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Louise M. Burke, Asker E. Jeukendrup, Andrew M. Jones and Martin Mooses

especially toward the end of an event ( Burke & Hawley, 2018 ). Table  1 indicates that substrate availability for the muscle (glycogen and glucose) and brain (glucose) is a key issue for many distance events, along with the offset of sweat loss to preserve plasma volume and cardiac output. There is

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enhance recovery from high force eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors. A Pilot Study Using Continuous Blood Glucose Monitoring During Mountain Ultra-Marathon E Mori, K Ishihara Dept of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Ryukoku University, Japan The present study was to measure the variability of blood

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Trent Stellingwerff, James P. Morton and Louise M. Burke

glucose, provides an effective and dominant fuel source for performance across a wide variety of events in athletics ( Hawley & Leckey, 2015 ). Indeed, it has been known for nearly a century that 100% CHO produces ∼5.5% more ATP per liter of oxygen consumed than compared with 100% fat oxidation ( Krogh

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Lindy M. Castell, David C. Nieman, Stéphane Bermon and Peter Peeling

to combat exercise-induced immunodepression effectively. Nutrients that have a role in immunonutrition are glucose, amino acids (for protein synthesis), and fatty acids, which act as fuels for energy generation in immune system cells and, importantly, enable the ability of cells to proliferate

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Louise M. Burke, John A. Hawley, Asker Jeukendrup, James P. Morton, Trent Stellingwerff and Ronald J. Maughan

. • Cross-sectional study has shown that chronic K-LCHF adaptation does not alter gluconeogenesis or glycogen synthesis rates, but reduces glycogenolysis and glucose oxidation at rest and during exercise ( Webster et al., 2016 ). • Anecdotal reports and case history ( Webster et al., 2017 ) suggest that