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Emma L. Sweeney, Daniel J. Peart, Irene Kyza, Thomas Harkes, Jason G. Ellis and Ian H. Walshe

regulation is apparent with various types of exercise ( Breen et al., 2011 ; Gillen et al., 2012 ), although high-intensity exercise may to be superior to moderate-intensity exercise for improving insulin sensitivity ( Ortega et al., 2015 ; Rynders et al., 2014 ). Sprint interval exercise has been shown to

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Sang-Ho Lee, Steven D. Scott, Elizabeth J. Pekas, Jeong-Gi Lee and Song-Young Park

weight over a short period of time prior to competition. 4 This rapid weight change with high-intensity exercise training may result in the deterioration of the health and sports performance of these athletes, as it can lead to an abrupt disturbance of metabolism and increased oxidative stress, which

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Peter Peeling, Martyn J. Binnie, Paul S.R. Goods, Marc Sim and Louise M. Burke

phosphorylation of creatine to phosphocreatine (PCr), a key substrate for high-intensity muscle force generation ( Greenhaff et al., 1993 ). Whereas PCr levels decrease during high-intensity exercise to rapidly resynthesize adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosine diphosphate (ADP; Rawson & Persky, 2007

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Trent Stellingwerff, Ingvill Måkestad Bovim and Jamie Whitfield

due to early studies demonstrating improvements in exercise efficiency (decreased O 2 cost at the same absolute workload) and a reduction the VO 2 slow component (which reflects a loss in muscle efficiency during high-intensity exercise), following both acute and chronic supplementation (reviewed in

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David M. Shaw, Fabrice Merien, Andrea Braakhuis, Daniel Plews, Paul Laursen and Deborah K. Dulson

palmitate (i.e., 16.13 ATP/mole per C 2 unit), fat utilization declines from moderate- to high-intensity exercise ( Achten et al., 2002 ), whereas absolute KB utilization increases ( Cox et al., 2016 ). The ingestion of ketone esters has also been shown to attenuate carbohydrate utilization as demonstrated

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Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener and Lars Engebretsen

effect is small at the doses that have been shown to enhance performance ( Maughan & Griffin, 2003 ). Creatine Overview Creatine loading can acutely enhance the performance of sports involving repeated high-intensity exercise (e.g., team sports), as well as the chronic outcomes of training programs based

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Brianna J. Stubbs, Pete J. Cox, Tom Kirk, Rhys D. Evans and Kieran Clarke

). Nutritional ketone salts increase fat oxidation but impair high-intensity exercise performance in healthy adult males . Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 42 ( 10 ), 1031 – 1035 . PubMed ID: 28750585 doi:10.1139/apnm-2016-0641 10.1139/apnm-2016-0641 Peart , D.J. , Siegler , J.C. , & Vince

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Stephan R. Fisher, Justin H. Rigby, Joni A. Mettler and Kevin W. McCurdy

diode therapy (LEDT) in short-term skeletal muscle recovery after high-intensity exercise in athletes—preliminary results . Lasers Med Sci . 2011 ; 26 ( 4 ): 493 – 501 . PubMed ID: 21088862 doi:10.1007/s10103-010-0866-x 10.1007/s10103-010-0866-x 6. Camargo MZ , Siqueira CP , Preti MC , et

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pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) content in skeletal muscle, which is a negative regulator of glycolytic flux, resulting in the impaired high-intensity exercise capacity. Because medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) is capable of producing more ketone bodies than long-chain triglyceride (LCT

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Peter Peeling, Linda M. Castell, Wim Derave, Olivier de Hon and Louise M. Burke

and experimentation; this is a likely scenario in many events (see Table  3 ). Creatine monohydrate Supplementation with creatine monohydrate increases muscle creatine stores and augments the rate of PCr resynthesis, thereby enhancing short-term, high-intensity exercise capacity ( Buford et al., 2007