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David M. Werner and Joaquin A. Barrios

-square test of independence was conducted. Post hoc testing of a significant chi-square was performed using assessment of standardized residuals. If standardized residuals were ±1.96 from the expected frequency (determined from the break frequency of the control participants), it represented the major cells

Open access

Mohammad Reza Pourahmadi, Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani, Shapour Jaberzadeh, Javad Sarrafzadeh, Mohammad Ali Sanjari, Rasool Bagheri and Morteza Taghipour

Sit-to-stand (STS) movement and its reverse, which are considered fundamental prerequisites for daily activities and functional independence, are repeated many times throughout the day. 1 , 2 Hughes et al 3 reported that STS is the most frequently performed functional activity in daily life. This

Open access

Lauren Burch, Matthew Zimmerman and Beth Fielding Lloyd

perceptions of the club’s status as a possible stakeholder in Catalan nationalism and independence. Responding to unrest in the wake of a referendum vote on Catalan independence, Barca requested postponement of its next game, which La Liga refused. The club’s decision to play the game in an empty stadium is

Open access

Tom Kane

assessment of the coverage, quality methods, effectiveness, and independence of the statistics, evaluation, research, and analysis efforts of the agency for identifying and addressing policy questions relevant to the programs, policies, and regulations of the agency (Act § 101(c)(3), 5 U.S.C. § 306(a)(9

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Lorenzo Lolli, Alan M. Batterham, Gregory MacMillan, Warren Gregson and Greg Atkinson

supplemented by conventional Pearson correlation coefficients, despite there being fewer than 30 participants in each sample. This mismatch between sample size and the appropriate statistical model violates the assumption of independence of observations and leads to both biased and overly precise statistical

Open access

Roberta Gaspar, Natalia Padula, Tatiana B. Freitas, João P.J. de Oliveira and Camila Torriani-Pasin

subjects To assess the effects of a 12-wk program of gait training assisted by FES on locomotor function and quality of life of individuals with SCI. 12 wk F: 3× per week I: NM T: gait training T: NM Improved overground gait resistance (6MWT). Greater gait independence (WISCI). Tendency to higher gait

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Bradley D. Hatfield, Calvin M. Lu and Jo B. Zimmerman

that are meaningful to them (e.g., rising from a chair and walking to the washroom in an attempt to maintain independence). A phrase that is often used to describe the content of kinesiology is that of health and human performance, and the health dimension is essentially intertwined with performance in

Open access

Jörg Krieger, Lindsay Parks Pieper and Ian Ritchie

industry (and beyond). This grants them independence from Olympic governors. Perhaps as the most notable example, the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the international governing body for the sport of football, opted to install its own world championships in 1930. The IOC’s strict

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Amanda L. Penko, Jacob E. Barkley, Anson B. Rosenfeldt and Jay L. Alberts

report falling within the previous 2 years, of which 65% result in injury requiring medical attention. 7 Falls are often cited as a leading cause for loss of independence in patients with PD. 8 , 9 Despite the prevalence of postural instability and gait dysfunction, current pharmacological and surgical

Open access

Viviene A. Temple, Dawn L. Lefebvre, Stephanie C. Field, Jeff R. Crane, Beverly Smith and Patti-Jean Naylor

of the EDI refers to children’s physical preparedness for the school day, fine and gross motor skills, energy level throughout the day, and physical independence. It contains 13 items and includes questions about pencil holding, hand preference, washroom independence, energy levels, coordination, and