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Stephen Seiler and Øystein Sylta

The purpose of this study was to compare physiological responses and perceived exertion among well-trained cyclists (n = 63) performing 3 different high-intensity interval-training (HIIT) prescriptions differing in work-bout duration and accumulated duration but all prescribed with maximal session effort. Subjects (male, mean ± SD 38 ± 8 y, VO2peak 62 ± 6 mL · kg–1 · min–1) completed up to 24 HIIT sessions over 12 wk as part of a training-intervention study. Sessions were prescribed as 4 × 16, 4 × 8, or 4 × 4 min with 2-min recovery periods (8 sessions of each prescription, balanced over time). Power output, HR, and RPE were collected during and after each work bout. Session RPE was reported after each session. Blood lactate samples were collected throughout the 12 wk. Physiological and perceptual responses during >1400 training sessions were analyzed. HIIT sessions were performed at 95% ± 5%, 106% ± 5%, and 117% ± 6% of 40-min time-trial power during 4 × 16-, 4 × 8-, and 4 × 4-min sessions, respectively, with peak HR in each work bout averaging 89% ± 2%, 91% ± 2%, and 94% ± 2% HRpeak. Blood lactate concentrations were 4.7 ± 1.6, 9.2 ± 2.4, and 12.7 ± 2.7 mmol/L. Despite the common prescription of maximal session effort, RPE and sRPE increased with decreasing accumulated work duration (AWD), tracking relative HR. Only 8% of 4 × 16-min sessions reached RPE 19–20, vs 61% of 4 × 4-min sessions. The authors conclude that within the HIIT duration range, performing at “maximal session effort” over a reduced AWD is associated with higher perceived exertion both acutely and postexercise. This may have important implications for HIIT prescription choices.

Open access

Rahel Gilgen-Ammann, Wolfgang Taube and Thomas Wyss


To quantify gait asymmetry in well-trained runners with and without previous injuries during interval training sessions incorporating different distances.


Twelve well-trained runners participated in 8 high-intensity interval-training sessions on a synthetic track over a 4-wk period. The training consisted of 10 × 400, 8 × 600, 7 × 800, and 6 × 1000-m running. Using an inertial measurement unit, the ground-contact time (GCT) of every step was recorded. To determine gait asymmetry, the GCTs between the left and right foot were compared.


Overall, gait asymmetry was 3.3% ± 1.4%, and over the course of a training session, the gait asymmetry did not change (F 1,33 = 1.673, P = .205). The gait asymmetry of the athletes with a previous history of injury was significantly greater than that of the athletes without a previous injury. However, this injury-related enlarged asymmetry was detectable only at short (400 m), but not at longer, distances (600–1000 m).


The gait asymmetry of well-trained athletes differed, depending on their history of injury and the running distance. To detect gait asymmetries, high-intensity runs over relatively short distances are recommended.

Open access

Carl Foster, Jose A. Rodriguez-Marroyo and Jos J. de Koning

Training monitoring is about keeping track of what athletes accomplish in training, for the purpose of improving the interaction between coach and athlete. Over history there have been several basic schemes of training monitoring. In the earliest days training monitoring was about observing the athlete during standard workouts. However, difficulty in standardizing the conditions of training made this process unreliable. With the advent of interval training, monitoring became more systematic. However, imprecision in the measurement of heart rate (HR) evolved interval training toward index workouts, where the main monitored parameter was average time required to complete index workouts. These measures of training load focused on the external training load, what the athlete could actually do. With the advent of interest from the scientific community, the development of the concept of metabolic thresholds and the possibility of trackside measurement of HR, lactate, VO2, and power output, there was greater interest in the internal training load, allowing better titration of training loads in athletes of differing ability. These methods show much promise but often require laboratory testing for calibration and tend to produce too much information, in too slow a time frame, to be optimally useful to coaches. The advent of the TRIMP concept by Banister suggested a strategy to combine intensity and duration elements of training into a single index concept, training load. Although the original TRIMP concept was mathematically complex, the development of the session RPE and similar low-tech methods has demonstrated a way to evaluate training load, along with derived variables, in a simple, responsive way. Recently, there has been interest in using wearable sensors to provide high-resolution data of the external training load. These methods are promising, but problems relative to information overload and turnaround time to coaches remain to be solved.

Open access

. Buchheit M . The hands that help are far better than lips that pray . HIIT Science Blog . 2018 . https://hiitscience. Com/the-hands-that-help-are-far-better-than-lips-that-pray/ 5. Jovanovic M . High Intensity Interval Training and Agile Periodization . Thome M , Mann JB , Eds. Muskegon, MI

Open access

Chelsey Klimek, Christopher Ashbeck, Alexander J. Brook and Chris Durall

program included components of the ATAC, CrossFit, and RAW programs. ATAC consists of plyometrics, kettlebells/medicine balls, high-intensity water exercises, wrestling, ladder and cone agility drills, tire flipping, speed interval training, and cinderblock throwing. CrossFit consists of continuously

Full access

Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac, José Messias Rodrigues da Silva and Rodolfo Paula Vieira

. 44 , 45 , 111 – 114 In addition, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) appears to be superior to continuous moderate exercise for improving endothelial function, 26 , 115 , 116 arterial stiffness, 26 , 49 markers of sympathetic activity, 25 , 26 insulin sensitivity and fasting insulin, 115

Open access

Peter Peeling, Martyn J. Binnie, Paul S.R. Goods, Marc Sim and Louise M. Burke

.g., team sports), as well as the chronic outcomes of training programs based on these characteristics (e.g., resistance or interval training), leading to greater gains in lean mass and muscular strength and power ( Rawson & Persky, 2007 ; Volek & Rawson, 2004 ). There is additional, albeit equivocal

Open access

Neil Armstrong

increasing aerobic fitness and decreasing adiposity may improve arterial health, particularly in boys, and may be important in reducing cardiovascular risk in adulthood. Peak Oxygen Uptake and High-Intensity Interval Training The practice of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with adults was developed

Open access

Alon Eliakim, Bareket Falk, Neil Armstrong, Fátima Baptista, David G. Behm, Nitzan Dror, Avery D. Faigenbaum, Kathleen F. Janz, Jaak Jürimäe, Amanda L. McGowan, Dan Nemet, Paolo T. Pianosi, Matthew B. Pontifex, Shlomit Radom-Aizik, Thomas Rowland and Alex V. Rowlands

-intensity interval training (HIIT) with adult athletes can be traced back at least to the beginning of the 20th century. Surprisingly, in the light of young people being able to recover more rapidly from repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise than adults ( 130 ), it is only recently that a concerted research

Open access

Carl Foster

knowledge of the training response is. Coaches had long ago discovered for themselves the value of more training and harder training. Interval training had been created in the late 1930s with some very specific (run to HR = 180/recover to HR = 120) guidelines that were supposedly scientifically based