.1123/pes.2016-0119 27705534 10.1123/pes.2016-0119 24. Bellows LL , Davies PL , Courtney JB , Gavin WJ , Johnson SL , Boles RE . Motor skill development in low-income, at-risk preschoolers: a community-based longitudinal intervention study . J Sci Med Sport . 2017 ; 20 : 997 – 1002
E. Kipling Webster, Leah E. Robinson and Danielle D. Wadsworth
Meghan Baruth, Sara Wilcox, Cheryl Der Ananian and Sue Heiney
Adjuvant treatment for breast cancer may result in long-lasting, adverse emotional and physical side effects, and reduce quality of life (QOL). This pilot study examined the effects of a home-based walking program on QOL and fatigue in early stage breast cancer survivors and whether changes in walking behavior were associated with changes in outcomes.
Participants (n = 32) were randomized to a 12-week home-based walking intervention plus brief telephone counseling (n = 20) or a wait-list control group (n = 12). Self-reported fatigue, QOL, and walking were assessed at baseline and 12-weeks. Results are presented as effect sizes.
Participants in the intervention had improvements in a majority of fatigue and QOL outcomes, whereas the control group had no change or worsened in many; effect sizes were generally in the small to medium range. Changes in fatigue/QOL outcomes were associated with changes in walking behavior, with effects generally in the small to medium range.
Home-based physical activity (walking) programs may be an appropriate avenue for alleviating the adverse side effects that often accompany adjuvant treatment for breast cancer. These programs have potential for widespread dissemination, which may have considerable impact on the quality of life of women recently completing breast cancer treatment.
Charlotte Skau Pawlowski, Henriette Bondo Andersen and Jasper Schipperijn
playground equipment. 9 However, only few recess intervention studies have investigated separate groups of children based on their baseline PA levels. 10 , 11 One intervention study redesigning the schoolyard with playground markings found that the intervention effect was stronger for children who engaged
Louise C. Mâsse and Judith E. de Niet
Over the years, self-report measures of physical activity (PA) have been employed in applications for which their use was not supported by the validity evidence.
To address this concern this paper 1) provided an overview of the sources of validity evidence that can be assessed with self-report measures of PA, 2) discussed the validity evidence needed to support the use of self-report in certain applications, and 3) conducted a case review of the 7-day PA Recall (7-d PAR).
This paper discussed 5 sources of validity evidence, those based on: test content; response processes; behavioral stability; relations with other variables; and sensitivity to change. The evidence needed to use self-report measures of PA in epidemiological, surveillance, and intervention studies was presented. These concepts were applied to a case review of the 7-d PAR. The review highlighted the utility of the 7-d PAR to produce valid rankings. Initial support, albeit weaker, for using the 7-d PAR to detect relative change in PA behavior was found.
Overall, self-report measures can validly rank PA behavior but they cannot adequately quantify PA. There is a need to improve the accuracy of self-report measures of PA to provide unbiased estimates of PA.
Stephen Seiler and Øystein Sylta
The purpose of this study was to compare physiological responses and perceived exertion among well-trained cyclists (n = 63) performing 3 different high-intensity interval-training (HIIT) prescriptions differing in work-bout duration and accumulated duration but all prescribed with maximal session effort. Subjects (male, mean ± SD 38 ± 8 y, VO2peak 62 ± 6 mL · kg–1 · min–1) completed up to 24 HIIT sessions over 12 wk as part of a training-intervention study. Sessions were prescribed as 4 × 16, 4 × 8, or 4 × 4 min with 2-min recovery periods (8 sessions of each prescription, balanced over time). Power output, HR, and RPE were collected during and after each work bout. Session RPE was reported after each session. Blood lactate samples were collected throughout the 12 wk. Physiological and perceptual responses during >1400 training sessions were analyzed. HIIT sessions were performed at 95% ± 5%, 106% ± 5%, and 117% ± 6% of 40-min time-trial power during 4 × 16-, 4 × 8-, and 4 × 4-min sessions, respectively, with peak HR in each work bout averaging 89% ± 2%, 91% ± 2%, and 94% ± 2% HRpeak. Blood lactate concentrations were 4.7 ± 1.6, 9.2 ± 2.4, and 12.7 ± 2.7 mmol/L. Despite the common prescription of maximal session effort, RPE and sRPE increased with decreasing accumulated work duration (AWD), tracking relative HR. Only 8% of 4 × 16-min sessions reached RPE 19–20, vs 61% of 4 × 4-min sessions. The authors conclude that within the HIIT duration range, performing at “maximal session effort” over a reduced AWD is associated with higher perceived exertion both acutely and postexercise. This may have important implications for HIIT prescription choices.
Debra J. Rose
with and without disabilities. In the final section of the paper, Todd and Martin Ginis share three key lessons they have learned from the many intervention studies they and their colleagues have designed for increasing physical activity in low-active populations that should serve as a road map for
surveillance and intervention studies? Current device algorithms provide important information that are useful for tracking population-level activity levels and the efficacy of interventions. However, there are still a number of questions about how sedentary behavior should be defined and this is likely to
Sarah Kozey Keadle ( email@example.com ), an emerging researcher in the Department of Kinesiology at California Polytechnic University, whose research focuses on wearable devices and their application in intervention studies. Interview With I-Min Lee, ScD, MPH What prompted you to pursue this work? I
means and focus to data availability, population, and tools available. Note that while an RCT can obviously also be performed when researchers have fancy tools, without tools it becomes very difficult to publish if the study design is not advanced (ie, favoring interventional study, and RCT if possible
work or practice. It is also essential for researchers who conduct systematic reviews or meta-analysis. Several journals include some reporting checklist in the editorial policy (eg, International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy [ 13 ]). However, systematic reviews of exercise intervention studies