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Joanne G. Mirtschin, Sara F. Forbes, Louise E. Cato, Ida A. Heikura, Nicki Strobel, Rebecca Hall, and Louise M. Burke

nutrition practices and food choices of three different sports nutrition philosophies (high carbohydrate [CHO] availability [HCHO], periodized CHO availability [PCHO], and the ketogenic low-CHO, high-fat [LCHF] diet), noting that these seem to be misunderstood across the scientific literature, social media

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Louise M. Burke, John A. Hawley, Asker Jeukendrup, James P. Morton, Trent Stellingwerff, and Ronald J. Maughan

). Ketogenic LCHF (K-LCHF) diet • Dietary plan in which chronic ketosis is achieved by severely restricted CHO intake and moderate protein intake. Fats, principally saturated and monounsaturated, contribute the major energy source. • Typical intake = <5% energy from CHO (<50 g/day), 15–20% protein, and 75

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Christopher C. Webster, Kathryn M. van Boom, Nur Armino, Kate Larmuth, Timothy D. Noakes, James A. Smith, and Tertius A. Kohn

: 942051 doi:10.1016/0003-2697(76)90527-3 10.1016/0003-2697(76)90527-3 Bueno , N.B. , de Melo , I.S. , de Oliveira , S.L. , & da Rocha Ataide , T. ( 2013 ). Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials . The

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, J Roche 4. Metabolic enzyme adaptations to long-term feeding of ketogenic diet containing medium-chain triglyceride in rats A Fukazawa, T Karasawa, Y Yokota, S Kondo, S Terada 5. Energy availability estimated in free-living conditions positively correlated with peak progesterone concentration in the

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David M. Shaw, Fabrice Merien, Andrea Braakhuis, Daniel Plews, Paul Laursen, and Deborah K. Dulson

ingestion of ketone supplements, specifically salts and esters, have shown to induce hyperketonemia within 30 min ( Stubbs et al., 2017 ), thus allowing the effect of KBs to be delineated from the interference to changes in substrate availability and metabolism resulting from alternative ketogenic

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Amy J. Hector and Stuart M. Phillips

and FR groups. Finally, following a 30-day ketogenic diet (only 22 g carbohydrate per day), elite artistic gymnasts lost ∼1.9 kg fat mass, and a small but nonsignificant increase in LBM was observed, with no significant differences in strength tests ( Paoli et al., 2012 ). Thus, it is possible to

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Trent Stellingwerff, James P. Morton, and Louise M. Burke

% energy from CHO to prevent ketosis while reducing CHO intake to levels below the fuel costs of daily training) and the more restrictive ketogenic LCHF diet (K-LCHF: typically <50 g/day CHO and 75–80% fat; Burke et al., 2018 ). However, studies have shown that as little as 5 days of exposure to HFLC

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Alannah K.A. McKay, Peter Peeling, David B. Pyne, Nicolin Tee, Marijke Welveart, Ida A. Heikura, Avish P. Sharma, Jamie Whitfield, Megan L. Ross, Rachel P.L. van Swelm, Coby M. Laarakkers, and Louise M. Burke

, J.J. , … Swinkels , D.W. ( 2019a ). Chronic adherence to a ketogenic diet modifies iron metabolism in elite athletes . Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 51 ( 3 ), 548 – 555 . doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000001816 10.1249/MSS.0000000000001816 Nemeth , E. , Rivera , S. , Gabayan , V

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Louise M. Burke, Asker E. Jeukendrup, Andrew M. Jones, and Martin Mooses

availability ( Burke et al., 2017 ). Meanwhile, both dietary approaches were associated with better race outcomes than chronic (3.5 week) exposure to a ketogenic low CHO, high-fat diet, despite its achievement of substantial (∼2.5 ×) increases in muscle fat oxidation ( Burke et al., 2017 ). This contrasts with

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Ricardo J.S. Costa, Beat Knechtle, Mark Tarnopolsky, and Martin D. Hoffman

evidence from sport nutrition professionals suggests a growing number of elite and amateur ultramarathon runners are purposely attempting, with or without professional guidance, adherence to low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) or ketogenic diets, aiming to enhance maximal and relative fat oxidation capacity