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Mark Messina, Heidi Lynch, Jared M. Dickinson and Katharine E. Reed

each group and a comparison of change between groups (χ 2 ) are shown. LBM = lean body mass; RET = resistance exercise training; SMD = standard mean difference; CI = confidence interval. Figure 5 —Forest plot showing the effect of protein source supplementation (other proteins vs. soy) combined with

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Felipe Fossati Reichert, Jonathan Charles Kingdom Wells, Ulf Ekelund, Ana Maria Baptista Menezes, Cesar Gomes Victora and Pedro C. Hallal

Background:

Physical activity may influence both fat and lean body mass. This study investigated the association between physical activity in children between the ages of 11 and 13 years and both fat and lean mass.

Methods:

A subsample of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort was visited in 2004–2005 and 2006–2007. Physical activity was estimated through standardized questionnaires. Body composition (ie, fat and lean mass) was measured using deuterium dilution. Those with moderate-to-vigorous activity greater than 420 min/wk were classified as active, and physical activity trajectory was defined as being above or below the cutoff at each visit.

Results:

Four hundred eighty-eight adolescents (51.8% boys) were evaluated. The mean difference in fat mass in boys and girls who reported ≥ 420 min/wk of physical activity in both visits compared with those who were consistently inactive was –4.8 kg (P ≤ .001). There was an inverse association between physical activity and fat mass among boys in both crude and confounder-adjusted analyses, whereas for girls, the association was evident only in the crude analysis. There was no significant association between physical activity and lean mass.

Conclusion:

Physical activity may contribute to tackling the growing epidemic of adolescent obesity in low- and middle-income countries.

Open access

Kayla E. Boehm and Kevin C. Miller

. Hyperthermic females cooled 83% faster than hyperthermic males. Abbreviations: BSA/LBM, body surface area-to-lean body mass ratio; BSA/M, body surface area-to-mass ratio; CWI, cold-water immersion; EHS, exertional heat stroke; ht, height; IWI, ice water immersion; LBM, lean body mass; T rec , rectal

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Jo Welsman and Neil Armstrong

body mass but, given the complications of measuring this, at least scaled to lean body mass. Subsequently, in his inspirational 1970 “Textbook of Work Physiology,” he devoted a chapter to interpreting “Body dimensions and muscular work” and addressed the interpretation of “maximal aerobic power in

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Amy J. Hector and Stuart M. Phillips

accompanying loss of lean body mass (LBM) during caloric restriction that can comprise roughly 25% of the total weight lost ( Weinheimer et al., 2010 ). Lean body mass, a significant proportion of which is skeletal muscle, is critical for good metabolic function (i.e., site of postprandial glucose disposal

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(Pearson’s correlation coefficient) between strength and performance outcomes with protein intake and age. Results.— Significant between group differences were observed for lean body mass (ET: 60.4 (6.4) kg, RA: 53 (8.5) kg; p<0.05), jump height (ET: 19.7 (4.7) cm, RA: 15.6 (3.5) cm; p<0.05), and CRF (ET

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Oliver C. Witard, Ina Garthe and Stuart M. Phillips

predominance of catabolism in adipose tissue, and the gain of muscle mass (i.e., lean body mass [LBM]) is a result of predominance of anabolism in skeletal muscle, this requires the track and field athlete to practice a meticulously tailored meal plan, combined with an adequate and sports-specific strength

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Graeme L. Close, Craig Sale, Keith Baar and Stephane Bermon

et al., 2017 ), with many athletes consuming the majority of their protein in their evening meal, with less consumed at breakfast and lunch. In terms of an absolute amount of protein per day, increasing protein to 2.3 g/kg body mass reduces the loss of lean body mass (LBM) during reduced calorie

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Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo and Majke Jorgensen

strategically to ensure retention of lean body mass and hormonal status, weight loss of as little as 2–3 kg can have a favorable impact on explosive power and speed ( Huovinen et al., 2015 ). Despite the potential benefits of reducing body mass, sprint athletes may present with indicators of low energy

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Neil Armstrong

exercise with peak V ˙ O 2 and body fat percentage. The authors assessed the stiffness index (measure of arterial stiffness) and the reflection index (measure of arterial dilatation capacity) using pulse contour analysis before and after a maximal exercise test, body fat content and lean body mass were