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Mark Messina, Heidi Lynch, Jared M. Dickinson and Katharine E. Reed

each group and a comparison of change between groups (χ 2 ) are shown. LBM = lean body mass; RET = resistance exercise training; SMD = standard mean difference; CI = confidence interval. Figure 5 —Forest plot showing the effect of protein source supplementation (other proteins vs. soy) combined with

Open access

Nicole C.A. Strock, Kristen J. Koltun, Emily A. Southmayd, Nancy I. Williams and Mary Jane De Souza

Cunningham 1980 equation may yield a more accurate estimate of RMR among highly active individuals ( Thompson & Manore, 1996 ), particularly because of higher lean body mass and fat-free mass. Interestingly, two different Cunningham equations exist (1980 and 1991), one of which relies on lean body mass and

Open access

Amy J. Hector and Stuart M. Phillips

accompanying loss of lean body mass (LBM) during caloric restriction that can comprise roughly 25% of the total weight lost ( Weinheimer et al., 2010 ). Lean body mass, a significant proportion of which is skeletal muscle, is critical for good metabolic function (i.e., site of postprandial glucose disposal

Open access

(Pearson’s correlation coefficient) between strength and performance outcomes with protein intake and age. Results.— Significant between group differences were observed for lean body mass (ET: 60.4 (6.4) kg, RA: 53 (8.5) kg; p<0.05), jump height (ET: 19.7 (4.7) cm, RA: 15.6 (3.5) cm; p<0.05), and CRF (ET

Open access

Oliver C. Witard, Ina Garthe and Stuart M. Phillips

predominance of catabolism in adipose tissue, and the gain of muscle mass (i.e., lean body mass [LBM]) is a result of predominance of anabolism in skeletal muscle, this requires the track and field athlete to practice a meticulously tailored meal plan, combined with an adequate and sports-specific strength

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Graeme L. Close, Craig Sale, Keith Baar and Stephane Bermon

et al., 2017 ), with many athletes consuming the majority of their protein in their evening meal, with less consumed at breakfast and lunch. In terms of an absolute amount of protein per day, increasing protein to 2.3 g/kg body mass reduces the loss of lean body mass (LBM) during reduced calorie

Open access

Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo and Majke Jorgensen

strategically to ensure retention of lean body mass and hormonal status, weight loss of as little as 2–3 kg can have a favorable impact on explosive power and speed ( Huovinen et al., 2015 ). Despite the potential benefits of reducing body mass, sprint athletes may present with indicators of low energy

Open access

Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener and Lars Engebretsen

assist in training harder, gaining lean body mass, or maintaining lean mass during periods of immobilization after injury ( Branch, 2003 ; Gualano et al., 2012 ; Heaton et al., 2017 ). Decisions on supplement use therefore need to consider both the context of use and the specific protocol employed

Open access

Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam Tenforde and Margo Mountjoy

of LEA, evenly distributed intake of protein (20–30 g every 3–4 hr) may support the maintenance of lean body mass and improve satiety ( Hector & Phillips, 2018 ). Throws Shot put Hammer Discus Javelin Physique requirements: A high body mass and BMI, moderate muscularity. Strong arms and legs, larger

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Jennifer Sygo, Alicia Kendig Glass, Sophie C. Killer and Trent Stellingwerff

, 151 – 158 . PubMed ID: 20388497 doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2010.04.004 10.1016/j.brainres.2010.04.004 Garthe , I. , Raastad , T. , & Sundgot-Borgen , J. ( 2011 ). Long-term effect of nutritional counselling on desired gain in body mass and lean body mass in elite athletes . Applied Physiology