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E. Kipling Webster, Leah E. Robinson and Danielle D. Wadsworth

completed the Test of Gross Motor Development—second edition (TGMD-2). 44 The TGMD-2 assesses 12 FMS separated into 2 subscales: object control (2-handed striking, throwing, catching, kicking, dribbling, and underhand rolling) and locomotor skills (running, galloping, sliding, leaping, hopping, and

Open access

Martin Buchheit and Ben Michael Simpson

With the ongoing development of microtechnology, player tracking has become one of the most important components of load monitoring in team sports. The 3 main objectives of player tracking are better understanding of practice (provide an objective, a posteriori evaluation of external load and locomotor demands of any given session or match), optimization of training-load patterns at the team level, and decision making on individual players’ training programs to improve performance and prevent injuries (eg, top-up training vs unloading sequences, return to play progression). This paper discusses the basics of a simple tracking approach and the need to integrate multiple systems. The limitations of some of the most used variables in the field (including metabolic-power measures) are debated, and innovative and potentially new powerful variables are presented. The foundations of a successful player-monitoring system are probably laid on the pitch first, in the way practitioners collect their own tracking data, given the limitations of each variable, and how they report and use all this information, rather than in the technology and the variables per se. Overall, the decision to use any tracking technology or new variable should always be considered with a cost/benefit approach (ie, cost, ease of use, portability, manpower/ability to affect the training program).

Open access

James J. Malone, Ric Lovell, Matthew C. Varley and Aaron J. Coutts

Athlete-tracking devices that include global positioning system (GPS) and microelectrical mechanical system (MEMS) components are now commonplace in sport research and practice. These devices provide large amounts of data that are used to inform decision making on athlete training and performance. However, the data obtained from these devices are often provided without clear explanation of how these metrics are obtained. At present, there is no clear consensus regarding how these data should be handled and reported in a sport context. Therefore, the aim of this review was to examine the factors that affect the data produced by these athlete-tracking devices and to provide guidelines for collecting, processing, and reporting of data. Many factors including device sampling rate, positioning and fitting of devices, satellite signal, and data-filtering methods can affect the measures obtained from GPS and MEMS devices. Therefore researchers are encouraged to report device brand/model, sampling frequency, number of satellites, horizontal dilution of precision, and software/firmware versions in any published research. In addition, details of inclusion/exclusion criteria for data obtained from these devices are also recommended. Considerations for the application of speed zones to evaluate the magnitude and distribution of different locomotor activities recorded by GPS are also presented, alongside recommendations for both industry practice and future research directions. Through a standard approach to data collection and procedure reporting, researchers and practitioners will be able to make more confident comparisons from their data, which will improve the understanding and impact these devices can have on athlete performance.

Open access

Viviene A. Temple, Dawn L. Lefebvre, Stephanie C. Field, Jeff R. Crane, Beverly Smith and Patti-Jean Naylor

Motor Development (TGMD-2; Ulrich, 2000 ) was used to assess the locomotor (run, hop, slide, leap, gallop, and horizontal jump) and object control (strike, catch, dribble, throw, kick, and underhand roll) skills of the children and to provide an estimate of each child’s current level of gross motor

Open access

Natasha Schranz, Vanessa Glennon, John Evans, Sjaan Gomersall, Louise Hardy, Kylie D. Hesketh, David Lubans, Nicola D. Ridgers, Leon Straker, Michalis Stylianou, Grant R. Tomkinson, Stewart Vella, Jenny Ziviani and Tim Olds

children aged 9–15 y fall in the 35th %ile relative to international and European norms (mean [95%CI]: 35 [29–41]). 13 Movement Skills* D+ Objectively measured movement skill data show 36% of girls and 41% of boys in Grade 6 demonstrate mastery in locomotor movement skills, with 25% and 54% respectively

Open access

Roberta Gaspar, Natalia Padula, Tatiana B. Freitas, João P.J. de Oliveira and Camila Torriani-Pasin

subjects To assess the effects of a 12-wk program of gait training assisted by FES on locomotor function and quality of life of individuals with SCI. 12 wk F: 3× per week I: NM T: gait training T: NM Improved overground gait resistance (6MWT). Greater gait independence (WISCI). Tendency to higher gait

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Lauren A. Brown, Eric E. Hall, Caroline J. Ketcham, Kirtida Patel, Thomas A. Buckley, David R. Howell and Srikant Vallabhajosula

– 844 . PubMed ID: 27541061 doi:10.1089/neu.2016.4609 27541061 10.1089/neu.2016.4609 5. Fino PC , Nussbaum MA , Brolinson PG . Locomotor deficits in recently concussed athletes and matched controls during single and dual-task turning gait: preliminary results . J Neuroeng Rehabil . 2016 ; 13

Open access

Mhairi K. MacLean and Daniel P. Ferris

biomechanical perspective, an exoskeleton that assists at one lower limb joint but not others should alter energetic cost differently depending on the locomotor task. A large majority of the total mechanical work performed by muscles during a step can be calculated as the summation of positive and negative

Open access

Brice T. Cleland and Sheila Schindler-Ivens

. PubMed doi:10.1016/0006-8993(92)90319-5 10.1016/0006-8993(92)90319-5 1498682 Brooke , J.D. , Misiaszek , J.E. , & Cheng , J. ( 1993 ). Locomotor-like rotation of either hip or knee inhibits soleus H reflexes in humans . Somatosensory & Motor Research , 10 ( 4 ), 357 – 364 . PubMed doi:10

Open access

Chunbo Liu

potent stimulus for improving locomotor muscle function in a variety of populations. These include patients with Parkinson’s disease, cancer survivors, total knee arthroplasty patients, individuals with anterior cruciate ligament injuries, elderly individuals, young healthy individuals, and athletes. The