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Ida A. Heikura, Arja L.T. Uusitalo, Trent Stellingwerff, Dan Bergland, Antti A. Mero and Louise M. Burke

Low energy availability (EA) is the failure of athletes to consume sufficient energy to cover the energy cost of exercise as well as energy required for optimal metabolic function and health ( Loucks et al., 2011 ). Low EA has been reported in both female ( Melin et al., 2015 ) and male ( Viner et

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Petter Fagerberg

; VO 2peak  = peak oxygen uptake; MPS = muscle protein synthesis; EB = energy balance; ED = energy deficiency; LEA = low energy availability; FSR = fractional synthetic rate. *Statistically significant change. The most comprehensive evaluation of energy restriction among males was conducted by Ancel

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Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, Adam S. Tenforde, Allyson L. Parziale, Bryan Holtzman and Kathryn E. Ackerman

.A. , & Burke , L.M. ( 2017 ). Low energy availability is difficult to assess but outcomes have large impact on bone injury rates in elite distance athletes . International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 1 – 30 . doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2017-0313 Hilton , L.K. , & Loucks , A.B. ( 2000

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Margo Mountjoy, Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen, Louise Burke, Kathryn E. Ackerman, Cheri Blauwet, Naama Constantini, Constance Lebrun, Bronwen Lundy, Anna Melin, Nanna Meyer, Roberta Sherman, Adam S. Tenforde, Monica Klungland Torstveit and Richard Budgett

not limited to impairments of metabolic rate, menstrual function, bone health, immunity, protein synthesis, and cardiovascular health.” The aetiological factor of this syndrome is low energy availability (LEA) ( Mountjoy et al., 2014 ). The publication of the RED-S consensus statement stimulated

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George Wilson, Dan Martin, James P. Morton and Graeme L. Close

The relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) syndrome was recently developed in recognition that male athletes display evidence of impaired physiological function that may be related to low energy availability ( Mountjoy et al., 2014 ). Jockeys are unique among professional athletes in that they

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Sarah Staal, Anders Sjödin, Ida Fahrenholtz, Karen Bonnesen and Anna Katarina Melin

Ballet dancers are reported to have an increased risk for low energy availability (EA) with or without disordered eating (DE) behavior or eating disorders ( Doyle-Lucas et al., 2010 ; Lagowska et al., 2014 ; Nattiv et al., 2007 ). Energy deficiency is related to impaired performance and a wide

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Sherry Robertson and Margo Mountjoy

components—that is, low energy availability (LEA), menstrual dysfunction (MD), and low bone mineral density (BMD) ( Nattiv et al., 2007 ). The International Olympic Committee (IOC) Consensus Group coined the more comprehensive term, RED-S, to more accurately describe the pathophysiology and multisystem

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Graeme L. Close, Craig Sale, Keith Baar and Stephane Bermon

leafy kind) are likely to be useful sources of the main nutrients that support bone health. Of the more specific issues for the athlete, undoubtedly the biggest factor is the avoidance of low energy availability, which is essential to avoid negative consequences for bone ( Papageorgiou et al., 2018a

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Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam Tenforde and Margo Mountjoy

Track and field athletes have intense physiological demands and require optimized nutrition ( Burke et al., 2019 ; Slater et al., 2018 ; Stellingwerff et al., 2018 ; Sygo et al., 2019 ). Track and field athletes may experience low energy availability (LEA) due to disordered eating (DE) behavior

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Louise M. Burke, Graeme L. Close, Bronwen Lundy, Martin Mooses, James P. Morton and Adam S. Tenforde

Recognition of low energy availability (LEA) in male athletes, associated with a range of negative outcomes, played a role in the framing of the Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) syndrome ( Mountjoy et al., 2014 ). Indeed, a variety of scenarios have been investigated in which male