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David P. Looney, Mark J. Buller, Andrei V. Gribok, Jayme L. Leger, Adam W. Potter, William V. Rumpler, William J. Tharion, Alexander P. Welles, Karl E. Friedl and Reed W. Hoyt

). Masking effects such as the sleep-wake cycle and dietary intake ( Rietveld, Minors, & Waterhouse, 1993 ) were not controlled during data collection. However, these issues will likely arise during circadian rhythm monitoring in free-living conditions. Ultimately, further research is required to validate

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Louise M. Burke and Peter Peeling

specific scenarios. Many available studies suffer from limitations in methodology which may mask a true interpretation of the results. Research that is poorly conducted or interpreted may result in type 1 (incorrect attribution of a performance change) or type II (failure to detect a true performance

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David M. Shaw, Fabrice Merien, Andrea Braakhuis, Daniel Plews, Paul Laursen and Deborah K. Dulson

., Livingston, MT). Participants were not informed of their trial allocation. However, due to the difficulty masking the bitter taste of BD, achieving successful blinding was deemed unlikely. For the day prior to each experimental trial, participants were prescribed a diet consisting of 6 g/kg of carbohydrate

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Jenny H. Conviser, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Riley Nickols

malnourished and engaging in unhealthy weight control practices. Athletic body types can elevate body mass index, one indicator of ED risk, and mask the outward appearance of poor nutrition. Eating disorders do not always immediately result in a decline in fitness and sport performance. Athletes may appear

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Jenny H. Conviser, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Riley Nickols

severity of EDs are underestimated, especially when the athlete is performing well, creating a false sense of health and wellness. In addition, athletes will characteristically work hard to meet the demands of the sport and mask any emerging performance deficiencies. Performance decrements and medical

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Barıs Seven, Gamze Cobanoglu, Deran Oskay and Nevin Atalay-Guzel

concentric mode and at 90°/s eccentric mode. In addition, for each wrist, the peak torque rates for unilateral extension/flexion were calculated at both angular velocities. Wrist proprioception was evaluated as active joint position sense (AJPS). To prevent visual input, all subjects wore eye masks during

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Jo Welsman and Neil Armstrong

elsewhere in this issue ( 2 ), we observed that a significant age effect masks a more specific effect for changes in fatness relative to overall body mass, that is, reflecting lean body mass. If we also include sum of triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness as a covariate in our example of 11- to 16-year

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Louise M. Burke, Asker E. Jeukendrup, Andrew M. Jones and Martin Mooses

 al., 2018a ). Table 4 Summary of Caffeine Supplementation and Performance of Distance Events Overview (see Burke, 2008 ; Southward et al., 2018a ; Spriet, 2014 ) Mechanism of action • Adenosine receptor antagonist with a large range of effects • Major effects during endurance exercise include masking of

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Dana M. Lis, Daniel Kings and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

intake by selecting energy-dense foods and by reducing fiber-rich foods. It is also important to note that a vegetarian diet may be used by some track-and-field athletes to mask restrictive eating or an eating disorder ( Cialdella-Kam et al., 2016) . Macronutrients: Protein, Carbohydrate, and Fat A

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Neil Armstrong

-requisite for elite performance in many sports. However, V ˙ O 2 max does not define all aspects of aerobic fitness. Cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPETs), which rely solely on V ˙ O 2 max , may mask clinical insights that can be gleaned from submaximal data and/or relationships between physiological