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Mohammad Reza Pourahmadi, Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani, Shapour Jaberzadeh, Javad Sarrafzadeh, Mohammad Ali Sanjari, Rasool Bagheri, and Morteza Taghipour

. 18 Although electromagnetic tracking systems are a better alternative and would be a suitable technique for assessing functional activities (eg, gait, STS) in a clinical setting, the quantitative analysis of functional activities using optical motion analysis systems is well established, and has

Open access

Sierra Hakanson, Samuel T. Johnson, Emily C. Norcross, and Cathleen N. Brown

completed both checklists independently, then reached agreement about each item for each study. Summary of Search and Key Findings • The search aimed to identify biomechanical motion analysis studies in a variety of pitching skill levels that examined relationships among trunk tilt and elbow varus torque

Open access

Salman Nazary-Moghadam, Mahyar Salavati, Ali Esteki, Behnam Akhbari, Sohrab Keyhani, and Afsaneh Zeinalzadeh

Objectives: The current study assessed the intrasession and intersession reliability of the knee flexion–extension Lyapunov exponent in patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency and healthy individuals. Study Design: University research laboratory. Methods: Kinematic data were collected in 14 patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency and 14 healthy individuals walked on a treadmill at a self-selected, low, and high speed, with and without cognitive load. The intraclass correlation coefficient, standard error of measurement, minimal metrically detectable change, and percentage of coefficient of variation were calculated to assess the reliability. Results: The knee flexion–extension Lyapunov exponent had high intrasession reliability, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from .83 to .98. In addition, the intersession intraclass correlation coefficient values of these measurements ranged from .35 to .85 regardless of group, gait speed, and dual tasking. In general, relative and absolute reliability were higher in the patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency than in the healthy individuals. Conclusions: Although knee flexion–extension Lyapunov exponent demonstrates good intrasession reliability, its low intersession reliability indicates that changes of these measurements between different days should be interpreted with caution.

Open access

Kai-Yu Ho, Brenda Benson Deaver, Tyrel Nelson, and Catherine Turner

reinjuries. Due to the kinematic deviations following ACLR, it is critical to identify those deficits in clinical practice. Three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis is considered most accurate for evaluating kinematics during dynamic movements; however, it requires expensive equipment, designated space, and

Open access

Kathryn Mills, Aula Idris, Thu-An Pham, John Porte, Mark Wiggins, and Manolya Kavakli

cameras with the game sensor, the DVJs could not be assessed by the VR game and 3D motion analysis concurrently. To avoid potential learning effects, the order of testing was fixed such that 3 DVJs were assessed first by the 3D motion analysis and then repeated with the game. All participants were

Open access

Aaron Nelson, Nathan Koslakiewicz, and Thomas Gus Almonroeder

trials. Marker clusters were also applied to the heel counter of each shoe to track the foot. A standing calibration trial was conducted with all markers in place. The 3D positions of the markers were recorded at 200 Hz with a 10-camera system (Motion Analysis Inc, Santa Rosa, CA). Calibration markers

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Thomas G. Almonroeder, Emily Watkins, and Tricia Widenhoefer

Context: The bodyweight squat exercise is a common component for treatment and prevention of patellofemoral pain; however, it can also place a high load on the patellofemoral joint. Restricting anterior motion of the knees relative to the toes during squatting appears to reduce patellofemoral loading. However, exercise professionals typically rely on verbal instructions to alter squat technique. Objective: To evaluate the influence of verbal instructions regarding squat technique on patellofemoral joint loading. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Motion analysis laboratory. Participants: Eleven uninjured females. Intervention: Participants performed bodyweight squats before (baseline) and after receiving verbal instructions to limit anterior knee motion. Two different types of verbal instruction were used, one intended to promote an internal focus of attention and the other intended to promote an external focus of attention. Three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics were recorded using a multicamera system and force plate. Main Outcome Measures: Sagittal plane patellofemoral joint forces and stress were estimated using a musculoskeletal model. Results: Participants demonstrated a reduction in patellofemoral joint forces (35.4 vs 31.3 N/kg; P = .01) and stress (10.7 vs 9.2 mPa; P = .002) after receiving instructions promoting an internal focus of attention, compared with their baseline trials. Participants also demonstrated a reduction in patellofemoral joint forces (35.4 vs 32.3 N/kg; P = .03) and stress (10.7 vs 9.6 mPa; P = .04) after receiving instructions promoting an external focus of attention (vs baseline). However, there were no significant differences in patellofemoral forces (P = .84) or stress (P = .41) for trials performed with an internal versus external attentional focus. Conclusion: It appears that verbal instruction regarding knee position influences patellofemoral joint loading during squatting.

Free access

Oliver Silverson, Nicole Cascia, Carolyn M. Hettrich, Matt Hoch, and Tim Uhl

assessment methods requiring software or computer analysis • Involved invasive procedures as a means to measure scapular movement • Used 3D motion analysis methods as the only method of evaluation • Did not include reliability as an outcome of the study • Included stroke or palsy patients • Reported on

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James S. Walton

them to the technology while I was working at Motion Analysis Corporation in the mid-80s. Later, in 1990, I worked with Hollywood animators to produce a data-driven, animated sequence (“The Golden Runner”) that was used by the US Olympic Committee to solicit the Olympic Games for Atlanta. 11

Open access

Shona L. Halson, Alan G. Hahn, and Aaron J. Coutts

high reliability but low ecological validity, while field assessments may have lower reliability but strong ecological validity. With the advent of wearable technologies, markerless motion-analysis systems, and sophisticated competition-analysis tools, there has been a rapid expansion of the ability to