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Eric S. Rawson, Mary P. Miles and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

response to exercise via increased growth factor/gene expression, increased intracellular water; reduced symptoms of or enhanced recovery from muscle damaging exercise (e.g., DOMS); enhanced recovery from disuse, immobilization, or extreme inactivity such as after injury; improved cognitive processing

Open access

Stephan R. Fisher, Justin H. Rigby, Joni A. Mettler and Kevin W. McCurdy

times and reducing muscle fatigue limiting postexercise strength losses. 1 After intense exercise, PBMT confines the degree of exercise-induced muscle damage, limiting the need for a large inflammatory process. 2 It also reduces patient-reported muscle soreness, modulates growth factors and myogenic

Open access

Graeme L. Close, Craig Sale, Keith Baar and Stephane Bermon

Injuries There is limited direct research on nutrition to prevent/treat muscle injuries, with most research originating from laboratory-induced muscle damage to study delayed onset muscle soreness ( Owens et al., 2019 ). Although such studies provide insights into potential nutritional strategies, it must

Open access

Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener and Lars Engebretsen

). Prostaglandin is immunosuppressive. Claimed to exert anti-inflammatory effects postexercise. Limited support for blunting inflammation and functional changes after muscle-damaging eccentric exercise in humans and no evidence of reducing URS in athletes ( Jakeman et al., 2017 ; Mickleborough, 2013 ). Vitamin E

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Michael Kellmann, Maurizio Bertollo, Laurent Bosquet, Michel Brink, Aaron J. Coutts, Rob Duffield, Daniel Erlacher, Shona L. Halson, Anne Hecksteden, Jahan Heidari, K. Wolfgang Kallus, Romain Meeusen, Iñigo Mujika, Claudio Robazza, Sabrina Skorski, Ranel Venter and Jürgen Beckmann

. Muscle damage, metabolic responses, inflammation, and associated fatigue resulting from intensified training are considered important drivers of adaptation, although chronic use of short-term recovery activities 2 may blunt these effects. At present, it remains unclear if the long-term application of

Open access

Jennifer Sygo, Alicia Kendig Glass, Sophie C. Killer and Trent Stellingwerff

-quality PRO (∼0.25–0.3 g PRO·kg −1 ·dose −1 ; Table  2 ) can reduce muscle damage during longer or back-to-back training sessions (∼90–120 min) and preserve muscle mass leading into the competition phase ( Phillips & Van Loon, 2011 ; Thomas et al., 2016 ). While the nutrition plan for jumpers should address

Open access

Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo and Majke Jorgensen

protein may reduce the muscle damage often seen in strength-trained athletes ( Cockburn et al., 2010 ); whether such a response has a functional benefit is unclear. Another potential strategy to attenuate the exercise-induced muscle damage common among sprint athletes involves the ingestion of

Open access

Lauren Anne Lipker, Caitlyn Rae Persinger, Bradley Steven Michalko and Christopher J. Durall

cardiovascular system, muscle damage, oxidative stress, and nerve conduction velocity is similar to regular exercise. 8 However, serious side effects have been reported with BFR in healthy populations including venous thrombosis, rhabdomyolysis, and pulmonary emboli. 9 Additional data are needed on the short

Open access

Louise M. Burke, Linda M. Castell, Douglas J. Casa, Graeme L. Close, Ricardo J. S. Costa, Ben Desbrow, Shona L. Halson, Dana M. Lis, Anna K. Melin, Peter Peeling, Philo U. Saunders, Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo, Oliver C. Witard, Stéphane Bermon and Trent Stellingwerff

/power with middle-distance aerobic/anaerobic bioenergetics demands for combined event Athletes • Optimization of athlete body mass, which varies widely by event, with emphasis on optimal power–weight ratio in some events • Recovery from training that may result in substantial muscle damage and neuromuscular

Open access

Lindy M. Castell, David C. Nieman, Stéphane Bermon and Peter Peeling

dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative stress, and muscle damage. White blood cell numbers and function, salivary IgA output, skin delayed-type hypersensitivity response, major histocompatibility complex II expression, and other biomarkers of immune function are altered for several hours, sometimes days, during