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Edgar J. Gallardo and Andrew R. Coggan

Numerous studies in recent years have investigated the effects of dietary nitrate (NO 3 − ) on the physiological responses to, and/or performance during, exercise. This interest stems from the fact that dietary NO 3 − is an important source of nitric oxide (NO) via the “reverse” NO 3 −  → nitrite

Open access

Peter Peeling, Martyn J. Binnie, Paul S.R. Goods, Marc Sim and Louise M. Burke

, when accepted CM supplementation protocols are followed, the expected increase in intramuscular creatine stores are likely to enhance lean mass, maximal power/strength, and the performance of single and repeated bouts of short-term, high-intensity exercise. Nitrate Dietary nitrate (NO 3 – ) is a

Open access

Peter Peeling, Linda M. Castell, Wim Derave, Olivier de Hon and Louise M. Burke

). Indeed, there has been lengthy but unclear speculation that the independently achieved performance benefits of creatine supplementation might be negated by caffeine supplementation ( Trexler & Smith-Ryan, 2015 ). Nitrate Nitrate enhances NO bioavailability via the NO 3 − –nitrite–NO pathway, which plays

Open access

Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener and Lars Engebretsen

. These supplements include: caffeine, creatine (in the form of creatine monohydrate), nitrate, sodium bicarbonate, and possibly also β-alanine. The mechanisms of action, typical dose, potential performance benefits, and known side-effects of each of these supplements are summarized in Table  3

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Louise M. Burke, Asker E. Jeukendrup, Andrew M. Jones and Martin Mooses

of performance supplements marketed to athletes have a strong evidence base. Peeling et al. ( 2019 ) have separately reviewed these products (caffeine, nitrate, creatine, β-alanine, and bicarbonate) and their mechanisms of action in relation to Athletics, identifying only the first two of this group

Open access

Louise M. Burke, Linda M. Castell, Douglas J. Casa, Graeme L. Close, Ricardo J. S. Costa, Ben Desbrow, Shona L. Halson, Dana M. Lis, Anna K. Melin, Peter Peeling, Philo U. Saunders, Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo, Oliver C. Witard, Stéphane Bermon and Trent Stellingwerff

-based performance supplements (caffeine, creatine, nitrate/beetroot juice, beta-alanine, and bicarbonate) may contribute to performance gains, according to the event, the specific scenario of use and the individual Athlete’s goals and responsiveness (Table  5 ). Specific challenges include developing protocols to

Open access

Trent Stellingwerff, Ingvill Måkestad Bovim and Jamie Whitfield

before the warm-up athletes should aim to drink 400–600 ml water or sports drink. Timing of prerace snacks and ergogenic aids are important. Eat last meal 1–4 hr prior the warm-up. And follow the guidelines for caffeine, bicarbonate, or nitrate as discussed in this paper. Race tactics is crucial for

Open access

Louise M. Burke and Peter Peeling

, 2008 ; Conger et al., 2011 ; Glaister & Gissaine, 2017 ), including its specific delivery in energy drinks ( Souza et al., 2017 ), bicarbonate ( Carr et al., 2011b ), creatine ( Branch, 2003 ; Mujika & Padilla, 1997 ), b-alanine ( Hobson et al., 2012 ; Saunders et al., 2016 ), nitrate

Open access

International Olympic Committee Expert Group on Dietary Supplements in Athletes

agents and nitrate. Benefits may be mediated by addressing the physiological factors that limit performance in a specific sporting scenario and/or by effects on the central nervous system. Because responses seem to vary between individuals and depend on the exercise model used, supplements should be

Open access

Romain Meeusen and Lieselot Decroix

 al. ( 2017 ) +     Cocoa flavanol 520 or 994 mg Scholey et al. ( 2008 )     +   450 mg Francis et al. ( 2006 )   ↑ regional perfusion +   903 mg Decroix et al. ( 2016 )   ↑ regional perfusion / Beetroot juice Meta-analysis Dominguez et al. ( 2017 ) +       12.8 mmol nitrate/day 7 days Thompson et al. ( 2015