The authors describe the implementation of a 3-week dietary intervention in elite race walkers at the Australian Institute of Sport, with a focus on the resources and strategies needed to accomplish a complex study of this scale. Interventions involved: traditional guidelines of high carbohydrate (CHO) availability for all training sessions; a periodized CHO diet which integrated sessions with low and high CHO availability within the same total CHO intake; and a ketogenic low-CHO high-fat diet. Seven-day menus and recipes were constructed for a communal eating setting to meet nutritional goals as well as individualized food preferences and special needs. Menus also included nutrition support before, during, and after exercise. Daily monitoring, via observation and food checklists, showed that energy and macronutrient targets were achieved. Diets were matched for energy (∼14.8 MJ/d) and protein (∼2.1 g·kg−1·day−1) and achieved desired differences for fat and CHO, with high CHO availability and periodized CHO availability: CHO = 8.5 g·kg−1·day−1, 60% energy, fat = 20% of energy and low-CHO high-fat diet: 0.5 g·kg−1·day−1 CHO, fat = 78% energy. There were no differences in micronutrient intake or density between the high CHO availability and periodized CHO availability diets; however, the micronutrient density of the low-CHO high-fat diet was significantly lower. Daily food costs per athlete were similar for each diet (∼AU$ 27 ± 10). Successful implementation and monitoring of dietary interventions in sports nutrition research of the scale of the present study require meticulous planning and the expertise of chefs and sports dietitians. Different approaches to sports nutrition support raise practical challenges around cost, micronutrient density, accommodation of special needs, and sustainability.
Joanne G. Mirtschin, Sara F. Forbes, Louise E. Cato, Ida A. Heikura, Nicki Strobel, Rebecca Hall and Louise M. Burke
Juana Willumsen and Fiona Bull
World Health Organization (WHO) developed guidelines on physical activity, sedentary, and sleep behaviors, as requested by the Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity. The WHO guideline process is a rigorous, systematic, and transparent process for the development of recommendations that takes into
Artur Direito, Joseph J. Murphy, Matthew Mclaughlin, Jacqueline Mair, Kelly Mackenzie, Masamitsu Kamada, Rachel Sutherland, Shannon Montgomery, Trevor Shilton and on behalf of the ISPAH Early Career Network
population levels of PA exist but need to be prioritized and scaled up to achieve the World Health Organization’s targets to reduce physical inactivity levels by 15% by 2030 10 and assist in achieving the United Nations’ (UN) 2030 sustainable development goals (SDGs; Figure 1 ). 11 Figure 1 —Links between
Salomé Aubert, Joel D. Barnes, Megan L. Forse, Evan Turner, Silvia A. González, Jakub Kalinowski, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Eun-Young Lee, Reginald Ocansey, John J. Reilly, Natasha Schranz, Leigh M. Vanderloo and Mark S. Tremblay
and Youth was first created in 2005 by Active Healthy Kids Canada, a registered not-for-profit organization, to advocate for the promotion of physical activity in Canadian children and youth. 11 A summary of the Report Card background and development process has been published elsewhere. 12 The
Inácio Crochemore M. da Silva, Grégore I. Mielke, Andréa D. Bertoldi, Paulo Sergio Dourado Arrais, Vera Lucia Luiza, Sotero Serrate Mengue and Pedro C. Hallal
Activity Questionnaire or Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). 4 – 6 World Health Organization (WHO) has adopted and recommended the use of the GPAQ, 7 , 8 which is being used in the STEPwise approach ( http://www.who.int/chp/steps ) for physical activity surveillance. 9 Although some local
Shona L. Halson, Louise M. Burke and Jeni Pearce
/vegetarian’; see Lis et al., 2018 ), portable/nonperishable snacks, and specialized sports foods/drinks. Management solutions include pretrip organization of required needs with the destination caterers or appropriate suppliers or the freighting/self-carriage of key foods from home within logistical
Johannes Carl, Gorden Sudeck and Klaus Pfeifer
also prevalent in children, with 76.2% of all boys and 84.6% of all girls leading lifestyles that are insufficiently physically active. 7 Against this backdrop, the World Health Organization 8 recently released a Global Action Plan on PA suggesting measures to achieve a relative reduction of 15% in
Vincent O. Onywera, Stella K. Muthuri, Sylvester Hayker, Lucy-Joy M. Wachira, Florence Kyallo, Robert O. Mang’eni, Peter Bukhala and Caleb Mireri
Kenya’s 2016 report card aimed to highlight the health and well-being of Kenyan children and youth using the best available evidence on the physical activity of Kenyan children and youth. The report pointed at areas where Kenya was succeeding and areas where more action is required.
Inclusive analyses of available data sources on the core indicators related to physical activity and body weights of Kenyan children and youth (5 to 17 years) were conducted. These were assigned grades based on a set of specific criteria.
Results show that Active Play, Active Transportation, Overweight and Obesity, and Sedentary Behavior were favorable with a grade of B. Overall Physical Activity, Organized Sport Participation, and School (infrastructure, policies, and programs) each received a grade of C, while Family and Peers, Government and Nongovernment organizations, as well as the Community and the Built Environment were assigned grade D.
Over 72% of Kenyan children and youth use active transportation to and from school and in their daily lives. Although majority of the children and youth have normal body weight, there is need to ensure that they meet and maintain the physical activity levels recommended by the World Health Organization. More needs to be done especially in relation to the governmental and nongovernmental organizations, organized sports participation, as well as involvement of family and peers in promoting healthy active lifestyles among Kenyan children and youth. More representative data for all indicators are required in Kenya.
Susan Paudel, Alice J. Owen, Stephane Heritier and Ben J. Smith
Organization (WHO) recommendations of at least 150 minutes of moderate or 75 minutes of vigorous PA per week. 4 , 5 The economic costs of physical inactivity were estimated to be around 53.8 billion international dollars in 2013. In addition to direct health care costs, physical-inactivity-related deaths
Jason A. Bennie, Tracy Kolbe-Alexander, Jan Seghers, Stuart J.H. Biddle and Katrien De Cocker
guidelines. 3 Muscle-strengthening exercise was first included in the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans 4 and was subsequently adopted in the World Health Organization’s (WHO) 2010 Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health. 5 The WHO guidelines state that adults ≥18 years should