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Daniel Birrer

severity of its symptoms and its impairment to quality of life, overtraining phenomena must be considered serious and career-threatening events. Using the story of an elite rower, I illustrate the advantages of diagnosing and treating nonfunctional overreaching (NFOR) and overtraining syndrome (OTS) by

Open access

Twan ten Haaf, Selma van Staveren, Erik Oudenhoven, Maria F. Piacentini, Romain Meeusen, Bart Roelands, Leo Koenderman, Hein A.M. Daanen, Carl Foster and Jos J. de Koning


To investigate whether monitoring of easily measurable stressors and symptoms can be used to distinguish early between acute fatigue (AF) and functional overreaching (FOR).


The study included 30 subjects (11 female, 19 male; age 40.8 ± 10.8 y, VO2max 51.8 ± 6.3 mL · kg–1 · min–1) who participated in an 8-d cycling event over 1300 km with 18,500 climbing meters. Performance was measured before and after the event using a maximal incremental test. Subjects with decreased performance after the event were classified as FOR, others as AF. Mental and physical well-being, internal training load, resting heart rate, temperature, and mood were measured daily during the event. Differences between AF and FOR were analyzed using mixed-model ANOVAs. Logistic regression was used to determine the best predictors of FOR after 3 and 6 d of cycling.


Fifteen subjects were classified as FOR and 14 as AF (1 excluded). Although total group changes were observed during the event, no differences between AF and FOR were found for individual monitoring parameters. The combination of questionnaire-based changes in fatigue and readiness to train after 3 d cycling correctly predicted 78% of the subjects as AF or FOR (sensitivity = 79%, specificity = 77%).


Monitoring changes in fatigue and readiness to train, using simple visual analog scales, can be used to identify subjects likely to become FOR after only 3 d of cycling. Hence, we encourage athlete support staff to monitor not only fatigue but also the subjective integrated mental and physical readiness to perform.

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Michael Kellmann, Maurizio Bertollo, Laurent Bosquet, Michel Brink, Aaron J. Coutts, Rob Duffield, Daniel Erlacher, Shona L. Halson, Anne Hecksteden, Jahan Heidari, K. Wolfgang Kallus, Romain Meeusen, Iñigo Mujika, Claudio Robazza, Sabrina Skorski, Ranel Venter and Jürgen Beckmann

resulting in functional overreaching is required for performance enhancement and can be compensated through comprehensive recovery. Functional overreaching describes a short-term decrement of performance without signs of maladaptation as a consequence of intensive training. In case systematic and

Open access

Sigridur L. Gudmundsdottir

are an important symptom of overreaching or overtraining in athletes, as a result of increased training load or changes in training schedule ( 18 ). Compared with a general Icelandic sample, the swimmers have a slightly higher number of WASO minutes and lower sleep efficiency ( 24 ). In particular

Open access

Lindy M. Castell, David C. Nieman, Stéphane Bermon and Peter Peeling

calendar based on the health of individual athletes. d. Monitor for early signs and symptoms of overreaching, overtraining, and illness. e. Avoid intensive training when ill or experiencing early signs and symptoms of illness. f. Participate in current illness surveillance systems by sport agencies. 2

Open access

Louise M. Burke, Linda M. Castell, Douglas J. Casa, Graeme L. Close, Ricardo J. S. Costa, Ben Desbrow, Shona L. Halson, Dana M. Lis, Anna K. Melin, Peter Peeling, Philo U. Saunders, Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo, Oliver C. Witard, Stéphane Bermon and Trent Stellingwerff

strategies  • Use small increments when changing training loads (typically <10% weekly)  • Develop competition calendar based on the Athletes’ health  • Monitor for early signs and symptoms of overreaching, overtraining, and illness  • Avoid intensive training when experiencing illness or early signs and

Open access

Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Robert F. Chapman and Julien D. Périard

athletes generally more tired during the LHTL stint. For athletes spending 3 weeks of 14 hr/day at 3,000 m, training is generally harder, and modifications are often required to ensure athletes do not overreach during this period. Optimizing recovery and making some modifications to training intensity

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Louise M. Burke, John A. Hawley, Asker Jeukendrup, James P. Morton, Trent Stellingwerff and Ronald J. Maughan

overreaching ( Halson et al., 2004 ), and potential effects on other body systems around illness and injury. • CHO mouth rinse ( Lane et al., 2013 ; Kasper et al., 2016 ) or caffeine supplementation ( Kasper et al., 2016 ) may be used during the session to reduce fatigue or perception of effort and partially