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Open access

Melissa Murray

Online learning has grown at a rapid pace in the last decade (Allen & Seaman, 2005). The purpose of this paper is to present some of the most recent technologies associated with online coaching education in academic settings. The effectiveness of the online learning environment is controversial (USDOE, 2009; Jaggars & Bailey, 2010). Therefore, it is critical to examine strategies that can be used to ensure learning outcomes. A series of tips for online educators are offered. Multiple tools for educators, including blogs, wikis, Google Cloud, instant messaging and YouTube are discussed in relation to possible course assignments within a coaching education curriculum. The paper concludes with a few suggestions for educating large groups.

Open access

Kelly A. Mackintosh, Kate Ridley, Gareth Stratton and Nicola D. Ridgers


This study sought to ascertain the energy expenditure (EE) associated with different sedentary and physically active free-play activities in primary school-aged children.


Twenty-eight children (13 boys; 11.4 ± 0.3 years; 1.45 ± 0.09 m; 20.0 ± 4.7 kg·m-2) from 1 primary school in Northwest England engaged in 6 activities representative of children’s play for 10 minutes (drawing, watching a DVD, playground games and free-choice) and 5 minutes (self-paced walking and jogging), with 5 minutes rest between each activity. Gas exchange variables were measured throughout. Resting energy expenditure was measured during 15 minutes of supine rest.


Child (Schofield-predicted) MET values for watching a DVD, self-paced jogging and playing reaction ball were significantly higher for girls (P < .05).


Utilizing a field-based protocol to examine children’s free-living behaviors, these data contribute to the scarcity of information concerning children’s EE during play to update the Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth.

Open access

Avish P. Sharma, Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Brad Clark, Jamie Stanley, Eileen Y. Robertson and Kevin G. Thompson


To determine the effect of training at 2100-m natural altitude on running speed (RS) during training sessions over a range of intensities relevant to middle-distance running performance.


In an observational study, 19 elite middle-distance runners (mean ± SD age 25 ± 5 y, VO2max, 71 ± 5 mL · kg–1 · min–1) completed either 4–6 wk of sea-level training (CON, n = 7) or a 4- to 5-wk natural altitude-training camp living at 2100 m and training at 1400–2700 m (ALT, n = 12) after a period of sea-level training. Each training session was recorded on a GPS watch, and athletes also provided a score for session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE). Training sessions were grouped according to duration and intensity. RS (km/h) and sRPE from matched training sessions completed at sea level and 2100 m were compared within ALT, with sessions completed at sea level in CON describing normal variation.


In ALT, RS was reduced at altitude compared with sea level, with the greatest decrements observed during threshold- and VO2max-intensity sessions (5.8% and 3.6%, respectively). Velocity of low-intensity and race-pace sessions completed at a lower altitude (1400 m) and/or with additional recovery was maintained in ALT, though at a significantly greater sRPE (P = .04 and .05, respectively). There was no change in velocity or sRPE at any intensity in CON.


RS in elite middle-distance athletes is adversely affected at 2100-m natural altitude, with levels of impairment dependent on the intensity of training. Maintenance of RS at certain intensities while training at altitude can result in a higher perceived exertion.

Open access

Neil Armstrong

prediction equations with the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) test—one of the most popular, particularly in North America. Scott et al ( 47 ) describe the development and validation of a prediction equation to estimate peak V ˙ O 2 in the PACER test. Unlike earlier attempts to

Open access

Shona L. Halson, Alan G. Hahn and Aaron J. Coutts

, this approach may enhance the perceived value and professionalism of sport science. The convergence of servicing and research is likely to continue and become more pronounced as the pace of the technological revolution becomes even greater, with sport science a major beneficiary.

Open access

Timothy M. Wohlfert and Kevin C. Miller

sat in a hot environment (32°C –35°C; 50%–60% RH) for 30 min Exercise protocol Subjects completed a 50-min self-paced, intermittent sprint protocol in a hot environment (31°C [1°C]; 33% [5%] RH) Subjects ran to exhaustion (∼47–57 min) at ventilatory threshold in a hot environment (34°C [0.1°C]; 52% [3

Open access

Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Robert F. Chapman and Julien D. Périard

four broad induction pathways: (a) constant work rate exercise, (b) self-paced exercise, (c) controlled hyperthermia or isothermic heat acclimation, and (d) controlled heart rate (relative intensity) heat acclimation ( Daanen et al., 2018 ). While these approaches all have merit and induce heat

Open access

Ricardo J.S. Costa, Beat Knechtle, Mark Tarnopolsky and Martin D. Hoffman

.g., ascending and descending, uneven and multitextured footing, and obstacle management); pacing strategies; exogenous and endogenous energy substrate availability and utilization kinetics; thermoregulation; gastrointestinal integrity; and functional responses. In addition, lifestyle (e.g., pack weight, equipment

Free access

Roel De Ridder, Julien Lebleu, Tine Willems, Cedric De Blaiser, Christine Detrembleur and Philip Roosen

instructed to walk toward the end of the walkway mat at their own everyday pace. During each trial, both the GAITRite ® and the BTS G-WALK ® sensor systems (G-Studio ® software) recorded equivalent parameters to be analyzed and compared. The parameters that were registered by both systems were speed

Open access

Aaron Nelson, Nathan Koslakiewicz and Thomas Gus Almonroeder

–Milwaukee. Subjects were given footwear to use during the warm-up/testing session (Saucony Jazz, Lexington, MA). The warm-up involved jogging on a treadmill at a self-selected pace for 5 minutes. Next, retroreflective calibration markers were placed bilaterally on the anterior–superior iliac spines, posterior