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Seiichiro Takei, Kuniaki Hirayama and Junichi Okada

maximized at 1RM. However, previous studies have reported that submaximal loads are optimal for peak power output during HPC. 6 – 10 There are 2 possible explanations for these results. First, the movement might not be executed correctly at heavy loads. Because it is not easy to perform ballistic exercises

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Emma L. Sweeney, Daniel J. Peart, Irene Kyza, Thomas Harkes, Jason G. Ellis and Ian H. Walshe

 < .05). Exercise Peak power output during each of the 30-s sprints is outlined in Table  2 . Peak power output did not differ between conditions ( p  = .644), but a difference was observed over time ( p  < .001), with peak power output significantly higher in the first sprint compared with the third

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Michal Botek, Jakub Krejčí, Andrew J. McKune and Barbora Sládečková

administration compared with placebo. 6 An antifatigue effect of HRW ingestion (2 L·d −1 for 2-wk preexercise) during intermittent cycling was also reported by Da Ponte et al, 9 who showed a 7.4% attenuation in the decline of peak power output from the sixth to the ninth of 10 sprints. Similarly, Aoki et al 7

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Trent Stellingwerff, James P. Morton and Louise M. Burke

significant reduction in ability to complete 1-km and 4-km sprints undertaken at ∼90% peak power output interspersed within the protocol ( Havemann et al., 2006 ). This reduction in power output matches the ∼30% reduction in PDH and estimated glycogenolysis during a 1-min sprint at 150% of peak power output

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Neil Armstrong

) cite the research of Barker et al ( 14 ) who proposed that to confirm a maximal value of V ˙ O 2 , following completion of a ramp test to voluntary exhaustion, participants should undergo a verification test at an exercise intensity of 105% of the peak power output in the ramp test. In a research

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Peter Peeling, Martyn J. Binnie, Paul S.R. Goods, Marc Sim and Louise M. Burke

.1% improvement in mean and peak power output, respectively ( Wiles et al., 2006 ). Such performance benefits have also been realized during short-duration maximal dynamic resistance training exercise, where measures of muscle torque production were significantly improved after the consumption of 6 mg/kg caffeine

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Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo and Majke Jorgensen

commonly reported but inappropriate food selection may affect an athlete’s energy availability and gut comfort. A state of low-carbohydrate availability has been shown to impair anaerobic work capacity ( Langfort et al., 1997 ) and peak power output ( Wroble et al., 2018 ). However, this effect is evident

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Ricardo J.S. Costa, Beat Knechtle, Mark Tarnopolsky and Martin D. Hoffman

these variables across distance/time); and associated muscle functional responses (e.g., maximal aerobic speed and sustainable fraction, knee extensor force, and/or peak power output) appear to be strong predictors of performance outcomes in single-stage mountain trail ultramarathons ( Balducci et

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Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener and Lars Engebretsen

–7% ( Paton et al., 2015 ; Talanian & Spriet, 2016 ). During short-term, supramaximal, and repeated sprint tasks, 3–6 mg/kg BM of caffeine taken 50–60 min before exercise results in performance gains of >3% for task completion time, mean power output, and peak power output during anaerobic activities of 1

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.4±3.3 kg, peak power output 384±36 Watts, VO2 max 55.6±6.8, completed a familiarisation and 4 experimental trials consisting of 150 minutes steady state cycling at 95% lactate threshold (80-90rpm) before performing a work-matched (∼30min) time trial (TT) task. Participants replicated 48-hour