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Amy R. Barchek, Shelby E. Baez, Matthew C. Hoch and Johanna M. Hoch

Clinical Scenario According to the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association, it is recommended that adults aged 18–65 years should spend a minimum of 30 minutes per day for 5 days each week participating in moderate physical activity or 20 minutes per day for 2 days

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Landon Lempke, Abbis Jaffri and Nicholas Erdman

school attendance, that may aggravate the symptoms. 1 Physical rest recommendations consist of refraining from physical activity until the postconcussive symptoms have subsided, followed by progressive restoration of physical activity as long as the athlete is asymptomatic. 1 , 2 Despite the widespread

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Karin Lobenius-Palmér, Birgitta Sjöqvist, Anita Hurtig-Wennlöf and Lars-Olov Lundqvist

The beneficial effects of physical activity (PA) on health for both children and adults are well known ( Strong et al., 2005 ; World Health Organization [WHO], 2010 ). In parallel, there is emerging evidence that sedentary behavior has an important negative influence on various health indicators

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Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Viviane Grassmann, Krystn Orr, Amy C. McPherson, Guy E. Faulkner and F. Virginia Wright

Inclusion is a process that encourages individuals with a wide range of abilities to engage together in meaningful participation in an environment that fosters a sense of belongingness and autonomy ( DePauw & Doll-Tepper, 2000 ; Goodwin, 2003 ; Grenier, 2011 ). Inclusive physical activity (PA

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Anna Lina Rahlf, Klaus-Michael Braumann and Astrid Zech

Context: Although increasingly used for therapeutic treatment, only limited evidence exists regarding the effects of kinesio taping on patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Objective: To determine the effects of kinesio taping on pain, function, gait, and neuromuscular control concerning patients with knee OA. Design: Randomized sham-controlled trial. Setting: University laboratory. Participants: A total of 141 patients (65.1 [7.0] y) with a clinical and radiographic diagnosis of knee OA. Intervention: Kinesio tape, sham tape, or no tape for 3 consecutive days. Main Outcome Measures: Self-reported pain, stiffness, and function were measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Further tests included the Balance Error Scoring System, 10-m walk test, the maximum voluntary isometric contraction force of the quadriceps femoris, and knee active range of motion. Results: At baseline, there were no differences in all outcomes between groups except for knee flexion. Significant effects were found for WOMAC pain (tape vs sham, P = .05; tape vs control, P = .047), stiffness (tape vs sham, P = .01; tape vs control, P ≤ .001), and physical function (tape vs sham, P = .03; tape vs control P = .004). No interactions were found for balance, muscle strength, walking speed, or active range of motion. Conclusion: Wearing kinesio tape for 3 consecutive days had beneficial effects regarding self-reported clinical outcomes of pain, joint stiffness, and function. This emphasizes that kinesio taping might be an adequate conservative treatment for the symptoms of knee OA.

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Kenneth Färnqvist, Stephen Pearson and Peter Malliaras

Context: Exercise is seen as the most evidence-based treatment for managing tendinopathy and although the type of exercise used to manage tendinopathy may induce adaptation in healthy tendons, it is not clear whether these adaptations occur in tendinopathy and if so whether they are associated with improved clinical outcomes. Objective: The aim of the study was to synthesize available evidence for adaptation of the Achilles tendon to eccentric exercise and the relationship between adaptation (change in tendon thickness) and clinical outcomes among people with Achilles tendinopathy. Evidence Acquisition: The search was performed in September 2018 in several databases. Studies investigating the response (clinical outcome and imaging on ultrasound/magnetic resonance imaging) of pathological tendons (tendinopathy, tendinosis, and partial rupture) to at least 12 weeks of eccentric exercise were included. Multiple studies that investigated the same interventions and outcome were pooled and presented in effect size estimates, mean difference, and 95% confidence intervals if measurement scales were the same, or standard mean difference and 95% confidence intervals if measurements scales were different. Where data could not be pooled the studies were qualitatively synthesized based on van Tulder et al. Evidence Synthesis: Eight studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were included in the review. There was strong evidence that Achilles tendon thickness does not decrease in parallel with improved clinical outcomes. Conclusions: Whether a longer time to follow-up is more important than the intervention (ie, just the time per se) for a change in tendon thickness remains unknown. Future studies should investigate whether exercise (or other treatments) can be tailored to optimize tendon adaptation and function, and whether this relates to clinical outcomes.

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Janelle Prince, Eric Schussler and Ryan McCann

4 weeks has also been identified as grounds for PCS classification. 10 The mainstay of treatment for an SRC, traditionally, is rest followed by a stepwise return to learn, then physical activity and, finally, return to sport. Time lost due to concussion is at least 5 days following symptom

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Roberta Gaspar, Natalia Padula, Tatiana B. Freitas, João P.J. de Oliveira and Camila Torriani-Pasin

physical activity and cardiovascular response to exercise. 4 The reduction in physical activity level and the systemic impairments after injury encourage sedentarism in subjects with SCI. 5 , 6 Among the most significant consequences of reduction in physical activity level are musculoskeletal changes

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Rosa M. Rodriguez, Ashley Marroquin and Nicole Cosby

reconstructive surgery aimed at repairing the ligament. Athletes will often choose reconstructive surgery in an effort to return to physical activity. A major outcome measure that assesses the success of an ACL reconstructive surgery is the ability to return to sports or recreational activity. 6 Although

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Jenny H. Conviser, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Riley Nickols

tests for medical evaluation ( Academy of Eating Disorders, 2016 ). While the physician and medical personnel order medical tests and give clearance for physical activity specified via the parameters of frequency, intensity, mood and duration (FIMD), it is essential that all members of the MDTT assume