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Anna Lina Rahlf, Klaus-Michael Braumann and Astrid Zech

function were measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). The questionnaire included 24 questions, divided in 3 subscales: pain, stiffness, and physical function. It was answered by a validated 10 points rating scale. 29 All items were answered retrospectively

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Kenneth E. Powell, Abby C. King, David M. Buchner, Wayne W. Campbell, Loretta DiPietro, Kirk I. Erickson, Charles H. Hillman, John M. Jakicic, Kathleen F. Janz, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, William E. Kraus, Richard F. Macko, David X. Marquez, Anne McTiernan, Russell R. Pate, Linda S. Pescatello and Melicia C. Whitt-Glover

) reduced feelings of anxiety and depression in healthy people and in people with existing clinical syndromes, and (4) improved cognitive function across the life span. Regular physical activity improves bone health and weight status in children 3 to <6 years and physical function among older people

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Kimberly Hannam, Kevin Deere, Sue Worrall, April Hartley and Jon H. Tobias

The purpose of this study was to establish the feasibility of using an aerobics class to produce potentially bone protective vertical impacts of ≥ 4g in older adults and to determine whether impacts can be predicted by physical function. Participants recruited from older adult exercise classes completed an SF-12 questionnaire, short physical performance battery, and an aerobics class with seven different components, performed at low and high intensity. Maximum g and jerk values were identified for each activity. Forty-one participants (mean 69 years) were included. Mean maximal values approached or exceeded the 4g threshold for four of the seven exercises. In multivariate analyses, age (−0.53; −0.77, −0.28) (standardized beta coefficient; 95% CI) and 4-m walk time (−0.39; −0.63, −0.16) were inversely related to maximum g. Aerobics classes can be used to produce relatively high vertical accelerations in older individuals, although the outcome is strongly dependent on age and physical function.

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Jitka Jancova-Vseteckova, Martin Bobak, Ruzena Kubinova, Nada Capkova, Anne Peasey, Michael G. Marmot and Hynek Pikhart


The aim was to examine the association of objective measures of physical functioning (PF) with education and material circumstances and the decline in PF with age by socioeconomic position (SEP).


In 3,205 subjects (60–75 years) from the Czech Republic, we assessed relationship between PF, SEP, and age. Linear regression was used to assess PF measures and SEP measures.


Cross-sectional decline in PF by age was similar in all individuals. Differences between SEP groups were similar across age groups, except for the difference in walk speed by material circumstances in men—bigger at older ages (p = .004). Men and women with the highest education were about 2 s faster at the chair rise test than those with the lowest education.


Findings suggest strong educational gradient in PF, an inconsistent role of self-assessed material circumstances, and virtually no interaction of SEP with the cross-sectional decline in PF by age.

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Katariina Kämppi, Annaleena Aira, Nina Halme, Pauliina Husu, Virpi Inkinen, Laura Joensuu, Sami Kokko, Kaarlo Laine, Kaisu Mononen, Sanna Palomäki, Timo Ståhl, Arja Sääkslahti and Tuija Tammelin

). The data sources were most recent national monitoring and surveys related to PA including the LIITU study (2016), the School Health Promotion (SHP) Study (2017), National Move! monitoring system for physical functioning capacity 2017 and Promotion of PA in municipalities – TEAviisari 2016. Finland

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Francesca Genoese, Shelby Baez and Johanna M. Hoch

rehabilitation. 5 However, despite the return of adequate objective physical function, return to sport is not always accomplished. 6 It has been reported that failure to return to sport may be due to biopsychosocial impairments such as deficits in social support, decreases in self-efficacy, or elevated levels

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Debra J. Rose

associations have been found between time spent in sedentary behavior and physical function (e.g., reduced muscle strength, lower cardiorespiratory fitness, and cognitive decline) in older adults. Despite these documented associations, Copeland questions whether all sedentary behavior is detrimental to the

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Cameron J. Powden, Matthew C. Hoch and Johanna M. Hoch

and then-test were identified for the overall WOMAC score as well as pain and physical function domains. Abbreviations: ACI, Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation; ADL, Activities of Daily Living; ASES, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons; FESV, Questionnaire to Assess Pain Processing Fragebogen Zur

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Edgar J. Gallardo and Andrew R. Coggan

products. Previous studies of higher doses of NO 2 − , that is, ∼2 to ∼4 mmol, provided in the form of sodium salt, have demonstrated improvements in various measures of physical function in older individuals ( Justice et al., 2015 ). It is not known, however, whether the smaller amount found in the

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Dawn C. Mackey, Alexander D. Perkins, Kaitlin Hong Tai, Joanie Sims-Gould and Heather A. McKay

individual level scores ( Mackey et al., 2016 ). We assessed lower extremity physical function with the short physical performance battery (SPPB), which included tests of gait speed, standing balance, and leg strength ( Guralnik et al., 1994 ; Pahor et al., 2014 ). Specifically, participants performed two