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Stephen Seiler and Øystein Sylta

The purpose of this study was to compare physiological responses and perceived exertion among well-trained cyclists (n = 63) performing 3 different high-intensity interval-training (HIIT) prescriptions differing in work-bout duration and accumulated duration but all prescribed with maximal session effort. Subjects (male, mean ± SD 38 ± 8 y, VO2peak 62 ± 6 mL · kg–1 · min–1) completed up to 24 HIIT sessions over 12 wk as part of a training-intervention study. Sessions were prescribed as 4 × 16, 4 × 8, or 4 × 4 min with 2-min recovery periods (8 sessions of each prescription, balanced over time). Power output, HR, and RPE were collected during and after each work bout. Session RPE was reported after each session. Blood lactate samples were collected throughout the 12 wk. Physiological and perceptual responses during >1400 training sessions were analyzed. HIIT sessions were performed at 95% ± 5%, 106% ± 5%, and 117% ± 6% of 40-min time-trial power during 4 × 16-, 4 × 8-, and 4 × 4-min sessions, respectively, with peak HR in each work bout averaging 89% ± 2%, 91% ± 2%, and 94% ± 2% HRpeak. Blood lactate concentrations were 4.7 ± 1.6, 9.2 ± 2.4, and 12.7 ± 2.7 mmol/L. Despite the common prescription of maximal session effort, RPE and sRPE increased with decreasing accumulated work duration (AWD), tracking relative HR. Only 8% of 4 × 16-min sessions reached RPE 19–20, vs 61% of 4 × 4-min sessions. The authors conclude that within the HIIT duration range, performing at “maximal session effort” over a reduced AWD is associated with higher perceived exertion both acutely and postexercise. This may have important implications for HIIT prescription choices.

Open access

Zhen Zeng, Christoph Centner, Albert Gollhofer and Daniel König

acute and chronic studies demonstrating pressure-dependent physiological responses. 10 – 12 While some studies use the same absolute pressure across all individuals, 13 , 14 setting an arbitrary absolute pressure does not necessarily restrict the same amount of blood flow for each individual and does

Open access

Stephan R. Fisher, Justin H. Rigby, Joni A. Mettler and Kevin W. McCurdy

intense exercise bouts, such as self-reported muscle soreness; however, objective measures of muscle force, lactate, CK, and inflammatory markers are hindered. 3 , 19 , 20 The physiological response resulting from PBMT on muscle recovery is quite different than cryotherapy. PBMT affects the tissue at the

Open access

Kayla E. Boehm and Kevin C. Miller

efficiency in hyperthermic individuals . Eur J Appl Physiol . 2008 ; 104 : 67 – 74 . PubMed ID: 18542989 doi:10.1007/s00421-008-0780-0 18542989 10.1007/s00421-008-0780-0 11. Castellani JW , Young AJ . Human physiological responses to cold exposure: acute responses and acclimitization to prolonged

Open access

Edgar J. Gallardo and Andrew R. Coggan

Numerous studies in recent years have investigated the effects of dietary nitrate (NO 3 − ) on the physiological responses to, and/or performance during, exercise. This interest stems from the fact that dietary NO 3 − is an important source of nitric oxide (NO) via the “reverse” NO 3 −  → nitrite

Open access

several days. It is not known whether daily intake of NZBC extract is required for effectiveness. We examined the effect of daily and intermittent NZBC extract intake on metabolic and physiological responses during brisk walking. Sixteen physically active healthy males (age: 24±6 y, body mass: 78±16 kg

Open access

Peter Peeling, Martyn J. Binnie, Paul S.R. Goods, Marc Sim and Louise M. Burke

of potassium phosphate supplementation on perceptual and physiological responses to maximal graded exercise . International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 11 ( 1 ), 53 – 62 . PubMed doi:10.1123/ijsnem.11.1.53 10.1123/ijsnem.11.1.53 Greenhaff , P.L. , Casey , A. , Short

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Michael Kellmann, Maurizio Bertollo, Laurent Bosquet, Michel Brink, Aaron J. Coutts, Rob Duffield, Daniel Erlacher, Shona L. Halson, Anne Hecksteden, Jahan Heidari, K. Wolfgang Kallus, Romain Meeusen, Iñigo Mujika, Claudio Robazza, Sabrina Skorski, Ranel Venter and Jürgen Beckmann

training adaptations. Recent studies have shown that recovery interventions (eg, CWI) may diminish physiological and performance adaptations to resistance training, 25 while others have indicated performance benefits 1 and amplified physiological responses with endurance-exercise tasks. 26 CWI resulted

Open access

David P. Looney, Mark J. Buller, Andrei V. Gribok, Jayme L. Leger, Adam W. Potter, William V. Rumpler, William J. Tharion, Alexander P. Welles, Karl E. Friedl and Reed W. Hoyt

.P. , Stolwijk , J. , & Hardy , J. ( 1967 ). Comfort and thermal sensations and associated physiological responses at various ambient temperatures . Environmental Research, 1 ( 1 ), 1 – 20 . PubMed ID: 5614624 doi:10.1016/0013-9351(67)90002-3 10.1016/0013-9351(67)90002-3 Gubin , D. , Weinert , D

Open access

Jo Welsman and Neil Armstrong

-2227.1997.tb08912.x 10.1111/j.1651-2227.1997.tb08912.x 9183481 24. Mirwald RL , Bailey DA . Maximal Aerobic Power . London, Canada : Sports Dynamics ; 1986 . 25. Morse M , Schlutz FW , Cassels DE . Relation of age to physiological responses of the older boy (10–17 years) to exercise . J Appl