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Yasuki Sekiguchi, Erica M. Filep, Courteney L. Benjamin, Douglas J. Casa and Lindsay J. DiStefano

Practice, Education, and Further Research The results of the 4 studies included in this critically appraised topic demonstrate that hydration status does not change physiological adaptations in plasma volume, internal body temperature, and skin temperature. While heat acclimation protocols can vary, the

Open access

Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam Tenforde and Margo Mountjoy

) substantially contribute to fuel needs. However, long-term LEA causes metabolic and physiological adaptations in order to reduce total energy expenditure to prevent further weight loss and promote survival, whereby the body obtains a new energy balance steady state ( Loucks, 2014 ). Therefore, an athlete may be

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Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Robert F. Chapman and Julien D. Périard

not appear to provide sufficient hypoxic stimulus for key physiological adaptation, although increases in Hb mass have been reported from training as low as 1,600 m ( Sharma et al., 2019 ) and 1,800 m ( Garvican-Lewis et al., 2015 ). Altitudes much higher than 2,500 m have greater potential to cause

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Ui-Jae Hwang, Sung-Hoon Jung, Hyun-A Kim, Jun-Hee Kim and Oh-Yun Kwon

fitness fields. 27 , 34 Of the 2 types of contractions, ST induces more pronounced neuromuscular adaptation than EMS training alone. 20 However, EMS and VC together could lead to greater physiological adaptation than either contraction type alone. Our results indicate that 8 weeks of ST training of the

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Christopher C. Webster, Kathryn M. van Boom, Nur Armino, Kate Larmuth, Timothy D. Noakes, James A. Smith and Tertius A. Kohn

downregulation of the insulin signaling pathway, which could partially explain the impaired glucose tolerance that is commonly observed after adaptation to the LCHF diet. Distinguishing between acute versus chronic physiological adaptation to LCHF diets is an important target for future research. The OGTT

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Øyvind Skattebo, Thomas Losnegard and Hans Kristian Stadheim

questionable if these findings can be extrapolated to the elite performance level. Hence, it is currently unknown whether the long-distance skiers’ specialization with respect to training, to perform in long events using predominantly the DP technique, leads to any favorable technical or physiological

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James A. Betts, Javier T. Gonzalez, Louise M. Burke, Graeme L. Close, Ina Garthe, Lewis J. James, Asker E. Jeukendrup, James P. Morton, David C. Nieman, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Trent Stellingwerff, Luc J.C. van Loon, Clyde Williams, Kathleen Woolf, Ron Maughan and Greg Atkinson

relationships between change in the outcome of interest and change in real athletic performance, physiological adaptation, or morbidity/mortality in the context of clinical trials. Nevertheless, such knowledge can be difficult to derive. We refer readers to the DELTA and DELTA2 publications for a full treatment

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Alon Eliakim, Bareket Falk, Neil Armstrong, Fátima Baptista, David G. Behm, Nitzan Dror, Avery D. Faigenbaum, Kathleen F. Janz, Jaak Jürimäe, Amanda L. McGowan, Dan Nemet, Paolo T. Pianosi, Matthew B. Pontifex, Shlomit Radom-Aizik, Thomas Rowland and Alex V. Rowlands

availability, irregular menses, and low bone density). Thus, Sommi et al ( 151 ) recommend “synergistic training adaptations” ( 52 ). This type of training method suggests that strength and conditioning programs should complement the physiological adaptations occurring throughout childhood and adolescence

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Alan J. McCubbin, Bethanie A. Allanson, Joanne N. Caldwell Odgers, Michelle M. Cort, Ricardo J.S. Costa, Gregory R. Cox, Siobhan T. Crawshay, Ben Desbrow, Eliza G. Freney, Stephanie K. Gaskell, David Hughes, Chris Irwin, Ollie Jay, Benita J. Lalor, Megan L.R. Ross, Gregory Shaw, Julien D. Périard and Louise M. Burke

). These two terms are often used interchangeably as they both induce physiological adaptations that can benefit athletic performance during prolonged events ( Périard et al., 2015 ). Initial adaptations, including plasma volume ( P v ) expansion, enhanced fluid balance, reduced heart rate, and decreased

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Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, Adam S. Tenforde, Allyson L. Parziale, Bryan Holtzman and Kathryn E. Ackerman

, 2007 ). Such functioning includes cell maintenance, thermoregulation, growth, and reproduction ( Wade & Schneider, 1992 ). From an evolutionary perspective, low EA (typically defined as <30 kcal·kg −1 FFM·day −1 ) due to periods of food scarcity or extraordinary energy expenditure causes physiological