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Genevieve F. Dunton, Michael Cousineau and Kim D. Reynolds

Background:

Policy strategies aimed at modifying aspects of the social, physical, economic, and educational environments have been proposed as potential solutions to the growing problem of physical inactivity. To develop effective physical activity policies in these and other areas, greater understanding of how and why policies successfully impact behavior change is needed.

Methods:

The current paper proposes a conceptual framework explaining how policy strategies map onto health behavior theoretical variables and processes thought to lead to physical activity change. This framework is used to make hypotheses about the potential effectiveness of different policy strategies.

Results:

Health behavior theories suggest that policies providing information may be particularly useful for individuals who are not yet considering or have only recently begun to consider becoming more physically active. Policies that provide opportunities may be less effective for individuals who do not find physical activity to be inherently fun and interesting. Policies that offer incentives or require the behavior may not be particularly useful at promoting long-term changes in physical activity.

Conclusion:

Exploring possible connections between policy strategies and theoretical constructs can help to clarify how each approach might work and for whom it may be the most appropriate to implement.

Open access

Lisbeth Runge Larsen, Jens Troelsen, Kasper Lund Kirkegaard, Søren Riiskjær, Rikke Krølner, Lars Østergaard, Peter Lund Kristensen, Niels Christian Møller, Bjørn Friis Neerfeldt Christensen, Jens-Ole Jensen, Charlotte Østergård and Thomas Skovgaard

Background:

The first Danish Report Card on Physical Activity (PA) for Children and Youth describes Denmark’s efforts in promoting and facilitating PA and PA opportunities for children and youth.

Methods:

The report card relies primarily on a synthesis of the best available research and policy strategies identified by the Report Card Research Committee consisting of a wide presentation of researchers and experts within PA health behaviors and policy development. The work was coordinated by Research and Innovation Centre for Human Movement and Learning situated at the University of Southern Denmark and the University College Lillebaelt. Nine PA indicators were graded using the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card development process.

Results:

Grades from A (highest) to F (lowest) varied in Denmark as follows: 1) Overall Physical Activity (D+), 2) Organized Sport Participation (A), 3) Active Play (INC; incomplete), 4) Active Transportation (B), 5) Sedentary Behaviors (INC), 6) Family and Peers (INC), 7) School (B), 8) Community and the Built Environment (B+), and 9) Government strategies and investments (A-).

Conclusions:

A large proportion of children in Denmark do not meet the recommendations for PA despite the favorable investments and intensions from the government to create good facilities and promote PA.

Open access

Richard Tyler, Marianne Mannello, Rebecca Mattingley, Chris Roberts, Robert Sage, Suzan R Taylor, Malcolm Ward, Simon Williams and Gareth Stratton

Background:

This is the second Active Healthy Kids Wales Report Card. The 2016 version consolidates and translates research related to physical activity (PA) among children and youth in Wales, and aims to raise the awareness of children’s engagement in PA and sedentary behaviors.

Methods:

Ten PA indicators were graded using the Active Healthy Kids—Canada Report Card methodology involving a synthesis and expert consensus of the best available evidence.

Results:

Grades were assigned as follows: Overall PA, D+; Organized Sport Participation, C; Active and Outdoor Play, C; Active Transportation, C; Sedentary Behaviors, D-; Physical Literacy, INC; Family and Peer Influences, D+; School, B; Community and the Built Environment, C; and National Government Policy, Strategies, and Investments, B-.

Conclusions:

Despite the existence of sound policies, programs, and infrastructure, PA levels of children and youth in Wales are one of the lowest and sedentary behavior one of the highest globally. From the 2014 Report Card, the Family and Peer Influences grade improved from D to D+, whereas Community and the Built Environment dropped from B to C. These results indicate that a concerted effort is required to increase PA and decrease sedentary time in children and young people in Wales.

Open access

Mohamed G. Al-Kuwari, Izzeldin A. Ibrahim, Eiman M. Al Hammadi and John J. Reilly

Background:

The first Qatar Active Healthy Kids (QAHK) Report Card was developed in 2015–2016. It is a synthesis of the available evidence on physical activity in children and youth in the state of Qatar—an assessment of the state of the nation. The report card is important for future physical activity advocacy, policy, and program development.

Methods:

The QAHK Report Card was inspired by the Active Healthy Kids Scotland 2013 Report Card. The methodology used in Scotland’s report card was adapted for Qatar. A Working Group identified indicators for physical activity and related health behaviors, and evaluated the available data on these indicators. The card grades were determined by the percentage of children meeting guidelines or recommendations.

Results:

The 2016 QAHK Report Card consisted of 9 indicators: 6 Physical Activity and Health Behaviors and Outcomes, and 3 Settings and Influences on these health behaviors and outcomes. The indicator National Policy, Strategy, and Investment was assigned the highest grade (B). Four indicators were assigned D grades: Sedentary Behavior, Dietary Habits, Organized Sports Participation, and Family and Peer Influence. Physical Activity and Obesity were both graded F. Two indicators could not be graded due to insufficient data and/or absence of a recommendation: Active and Outdoor Play, and Community and School Influence.

Conclusions:

The QAHK Report Card identified weaknesses and gaps in the evidence on physical activity and health in children and youth in Qatar. The quality of evidence was poor for some indicators, with some data collection methods of limited validity and reliability, or only available for a limited age range, so the grades are best estimates of the current situation in Qatar. Future surveys and research using objective physical activity measures will support the development of a second QAHK Report Card by 2018.

Open access

Monika Uys, Susan Bassett, Catherine E. Draper, Lisa Micklesfield, Andries Monyeki, Anniza de Villiers, Estelle V. Lambert and the HAKSA 2016 Writing Group

Background:

We present results of the 2016 Healthy Active Kids South Africa (HAKSA) Report Card on the current status of physical activity (PA) and nutrition in South African youth. The context in which we interpret the findings is that participation in PA is a fundamental human right, along with the right to “attainment of the highest standard of health.”

Methods:

The HAKSA 2016 Writing Group was comprised of 33 authorities in physical education, exercise science, nutrition, public health, and journalism. The search strategy was based on peer-reviewed manuscripts, dissertations, and ‘gray’ literature. The core PA indicators are Overall Physical Activity Level; Organized Sport Participation; Active and Outdoor Play; Active Transportation; Sedentary Behaviors; Family and Peer Influences; School; Community and the Built Environment; and National Government Policy, Strategies, and Investment. In addition, we reported on Physical Fitness and Motor Proficiency separately. We also reported on nutrition indicators including Overweight and Under-nutrition along with certain key behaviors such as Fruit and Vegetable Intake, and policies and programs including School Nutrition Programs and Tuck Shops. Data were extracted and grades assigned after consensus was reached. Grades were assigned to each indicator ranging from an A, succeeding with a large majority of children and youth (81% to 100%); B, succeeding with well over half of children and youth (61% to 80%); C, succeeding with about half of children and youth (41% to 60%); D, succeeding with less than half but some children and youth (21% to 40%); and F, succeeding with very few children and youth (0% to 20%); INC is inconclusive.

Results:

Overall PA levels received a C grade, as we are succeeding with more than 50% of children meeting recommendations. Organized Sports Participation also received a C, and Government Policies remain promising, receiving a B. Screen time and sedentary behavior were a major concern. Under- and over-weight were highlighted and, as overweight is on the rise, received a D grade.

Conclusions:

In particular, issues of food security, obesogenic environments, and access to activity-supportive environments should guide social mobilization downstream and policy upstream. There is an urgent need for practice-based evidence based on evaluation of existing, scaled up interventions.

Open access

Asaduzzaman Khan, Mohammad Abdul Kadir, Sohel Reza Choudhury, Fatema Ashraf, Mahbubur Rahman, Kazi Rumana Ahmed, K. M. Saif-Ur-Rahman, Sonia Parvin and Riaz Uddin

particular concern because of the health implications of insufficient PA. 3 The purpose of this paper is to summarize the results of the 2018 Bangladesh Report Card, which is a synthesis of the existing evidence of activity behaviours, available supports, and policy strategies surrounding active living in

Open access

Chalchisa Abdeta, Zelalem Teklemariam, Alem Deksisa and Endashew Abera

 al . The pandemic of physical inactivity: global action for public health . Lancet . 2012 ; 380 ( 9838 ): 294 – 305 . 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60898-8 22818941 7. CSSP . Results-Based Public Policy Strategies for Preventing Childhood Obesity . The Center for the Study of Social Policy ; 2011 . www

Open access

Meera Sreedhara, Karin Valentine Goins, Christine Frisard, Milagros C. Rosal and Stephenie C. Lemon

collaboration,” “No current or past collaboration.” LHDs reported on 8 resources used to guide inclusion of policy strategies in the CHIP, from which a categorical variable was generated as “Yes, the Community Guide, National Prevention Strategy or Healthy People 2020 were used” or “No, did not use credible

Open access

Dawn M. Tladi, Malebogo Monnaatsie, Sheila Shaibu, Gaonyadiwe Sinombe, Gaonyadiwe G. Mokone, Lesego Gabaitiri, Leapetswe Malete and Hubona Omphile

, therefore insufficient to grade accurately. Government C The 2011 National Health Policy advocates for physical activity promotion, particularly in young people. The 2010 National Youth Policy strategy advocates for the improvement and access to recreation, sport and creative arts programmes and facilities

Open access

Marilia Silva Paulo, Javaid Nauman, Abdishakur Abdulle, Abdulla Aljunaibi, Mouza Alzaabi, Caroline Barakat-Haddad, Mohamud Sheek-Hussein, Syed Mahboob Shah, Susan Yousufzai and Tom Loney

resources into developing and implementing policies, strategies, services, and facilities that will increase PA across the entire population. Examples related to the youth population include the Abu Dhabi Department of Health’s Eat Right Get Active program 9 and the UAE Ministry of Education’s Physical