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Kingsley K. Akinroye and Ade F. Adeniyi

lifestyle among children and youth. According to the World Health Organisation, 2 two-thirds of premature deaths in adults are associated with childhood conditions and behaviours. Such common behaviours including smoking, heavy episodic drinking and physical inactivity are associated with NCD risks, with

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Jenny H. Conviser, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Riley Nickols

and recovery status and, as such, ongoing re-evaluation by the MDTT during treatment is necessary. It is critical that the MDTT agree upon previously established parameters for return to play ( Cook et al., 2016 ) since a premature return to sport may increase risk of aggravated illness, injury or re

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Daniel Bok, Karim Chamari and Carl Foster

. 18 In many places, and considering the economic impact of television coverage, there was even pressure to resume competition in empty stadiums despite the fact that possible premature reactivation of sport activities might have negative public health and personal health consequences. With the

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Emily A. Hall, Dario Gonzalez and Rebecca M. Lopez

by a coach to prematurely return an athlete to play after sustaining a concussion. 10 The same study revealed that female clinicians reported experiencing greater pressure when compared to their male counterparts, and that clinicians at schools under the traditional athletics model experienced

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Janet E. Fulton, David M. Buchner, Susan A. Carlson, Deborah Borbely, Kenneth M. Rose, Ann E. O’Connor, Janelle P. Gunn and Ruth Petersen

not meet minimum aerobic physical activity guidelines. 6 The United States can reduce chronic disease by increasing physical activity. Low population levels of physical activity have substantial health and societal costs. About 1 in 10 premature deaths can be attributed to physical inactivity

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Matthew Booth, Jacob Powell, Patrick O. McKeon and Jennifer M. Medina McKeon

, and (d) duration of treatment. A recommendation for the “best” timeframe to initiate VRT is not clear from these studies. As there is currently no consistency in the evidence for when VRT may be most beneficial, it is premature to make this recommendation in the discussion. In truth, this strengthens

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Sarah Staal, Anders Sjödin, Ida Fahrenholtz, Karen Bonnesen and Anna Katarina Melin

range of health consequences in both female and male athletes and dancers ( Mountjoy et al., 2014 ). Premature osteoporosis, cardiovascular risk factors, and eating disorders with clinical signs, such as underweight, extremely low body fat, menstrual dysfunction (MD), and hypotension, are regarded as

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Xiaolin Yang, Irinja Lounassalo, Anna Kankaanpää, Mirja Hirvensalo, Suvi P. Rovio, Asko Tolvanen, Stuart J.H. Biddle, Harri Helajärvi, Sanna H. Palomäki, Kasper Salin, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Olli T. Raitakari and Tuija H. Tammelin

adverse health and behavioral outcomes than other domains of sedentary behavior (eg, using a computer, sitting during transportation, or sitting at work), 4 , 5 and it may even lead to premature deaths during adulthood. 6 On the other hand, evidence shows that regular leisure-time physical activity

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Michael Wälchli, Jan Ruffieux,, Audrey Mouthon, Martin Keller and Wolfgang Taube

on a premature postural control system and, therefore, respond differently to BT than older children or adolescents. As there is increasingly more evidence that supraspinal centers are largely responsible for BT-induced improvements ( 35 ), the immaturity of the supraspinal system may prevent an

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Tamara Vehige Calise, William DeJong, Timothy Heren, Chloe Wingerter and Harold W. Kohl III

those youth under 18 years 2 suggesting the importance of improving this population’s health status. A physically active lifestyle has many health benefits. Individuals who engage in regular physical activity have a lower risk of chronic disease and premature death. 4 Walking, in particular, has been