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E. Kipling Webster, Leah E. Robinson and Danielle D. Wadsworth

activity. However, research on the physical activity levels of preschool-age children has shown that children are not meeting physical activity recommendations 3 and tend to be inactive or sedentary for large portions of their day. 4 , 5 In preschool-age children, high amounts of inactivity have been

Open access

Maurice R. Puyau, Anne L. Adolph, Yan Liu, Theresa A. Wilson, Issa F. Zakeri and Nancy F. Butte

Background:

The absolute energy cost of activities in children increases with age due to greater muscle mass and physical capability associated with growth and developmental maturation; however, there is a paucity of data in preschool-aged children. Study aims were 1) to describe absolute and relative energy cost of common activities of preschool-aged children in terms of VO2, energy expenditure (kilocalories per minute) and child-specific metabolic equivalents (METs) measured by room calorimetry for use in the Youth Compendium of Physical Activity, and 2) to predict METs from age, sex and heart rate (HR).

Methods:

Energy expenditure (EE), oxygen consumption (VO2), HR, and child-METs of 13 structured activities were measured by room respiration calorimetry in 119 healthy children, ages 3 to 5 years.

Results:

EE, VO2, HR, and child-METs are presented for 13 structured activities ranging from sleeping, sedentary, low-, moderate- to high-active. A significant curvilinear relationship was observed between child-METs and HR (r 2 = .85; P = .001).

Conclusion:

Age-specific child METs for 13 structured activities in preschool-aged children will be useful to extend the Youth Compendium of Physical Activity for research purposes and practical applications. HR may serve as an objective measure of MET intensity in preschool-aged children.

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Angie L.I. Cradock, Emily M. O'Donnell, Sara E. Benjamin, Elizabeth Walker and Meghan Slining

Background:

As interventions increasingly emphasize early child care settings, it is necessary to understand the state regulatory context that provides guidelines for outdoor physical activity and safety and sets standards for child care environments.

Methods:

Researchers reviewed regulations for child care facilities for 50 states, the District of Columbia and the Virgin Islands. We compared state regulations with national standards for 17 physical activity- and safety-related items for outdoor playground settings outlined in Caring for Our Children: National Health and Safety Performance Standards: Guidelines for Out-of-Home Child Care Programs (CFOC). State regulations were coded as fully, partially or not addressing the CFOC standard and state-level summary scores were calculated.

Results:

On average, state regulations fully addressed one-third of 17 CFOC standards in regulations for centers (34%) and family child care homes (27%). Data suggest insufficient attention to outdoor play area proximity and size, equipment height, surfacing, and inspections.

Conclusions:

Considerable variation exists among state regulations related to physical activity promotion and injury prevention within outdoor play areas. Many states' regulations do not comply with published national health and safety standards. Enhancing regulations is one component of a policy approach to promoting safe, physically active child care settings.

Open access

In the article Brian, A., Taunton, S., Shortt, C., Pennell, A., & Sacko, R. (2019). Predictors of physical activity for preschool children with and without disabilities from socioeconomically disadvantaged settings. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 36 (1), 77–90, doi: 10.1123/apaq.2017

Open access

Juana Willumsen and Fiona Bull

Background: Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for global mortality and a contributor to the increase in overweight and obesity. The Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity identified the need for guidance on physical activity, particularly for early childhood (<5 y), a period of rapid physical and cognitive development. Methods: The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed the first global guidelines on physical activity, sedentary, and sleep behaviors, building upon high-quality systematic reviews. The WHO guideline process is a rigorous, systematic, and transparent method for the development of recommendations, using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Evidence to Decision framework. It takes into consideration the strength of the evidence as well as values and preferences, benefits and harms, equity and human rights. Results: The authors summarize the first global guidelines on time spent in physical activity, sedentary behavior (including screen time and time spent restrained), and sleep patterns in infants (birth to 1 y of age), toddlers (1–2.9 y of age), and preschoolers (3–4.9 y of age). Conclusions: WHO is actively disseminating and supporting implementation of these guidelines by national adoption and adaptation, through links with early childhood development and the Global Action Plan on Physical Activity 2018–2030.

Open access

Chiaki Tanaka, Shigeho Tanaka, Shigeru Inoue, Motohiko Miyachi, Koya Suzuki, Takafumi Abe and John J. Reilly

preschool children to high school children in 2016 to only school aged children and adolescents in 2018 in line with Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance standards. The grading scheme in the 2018 report card is also more detailed than in 2016. 4 The major strength of the 2018 Report Card includes the use of

Open access

Viviene A. Temple, Dawn L. Lefebvre, Stephanie C. Field, Jeff R. Crane, Beverly Smith and Patti-Jean Naylor

-015-0250-0 10.1186/s12966-015-0250-0 Goodway , J.D. , & Branta , C.F. ( 2003 ). Influence of a motor skill intervention on fundamental motor skill development of disadvantaged preschool children . Research Quarterly of Exercise and Sport, 74 , 36 – 46 . PubMed ID: 12659474 doi:10

Open access

Jorge Mota, Rute Santos, Manuel João Coelho-e-Silva, Armando M. Raimundo and Luís B. Sardinha

, from pre-school until the 12th grade. Time allocated to PE classes ranges from 90 to 150/week over 2 or 3 sessions/week. PE is taught by a graduated PE teacher. 85% of schools offer school clubs under the supervision of a PE teacher including competitions within and between school and it is of

Open access

Melanna F. Cox, Greg J. Petrucci Jr., Robert T. Marcotte, Brittany R. Masteller, John Staudenmayer, Patty S. Freedson and John R. Sirard

toddler (1.5–2.9 years), preschool (3–5.9 years), and 6- to 12-year-old age groups, before coding videos from those participants. Therefore, coders will be required to complete certification videos for younger age groups before coding data from the main study, requiring additional training. For these age

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potential importance of addressing these aspects in lifestyle behaviour modification interventions. Play as a context for motor development in preschool children: a compositional analysis Dr Lawrence Foweather 1 , Matteo Crotti 1 , Till Utesch 2 , Jonathan Foulkes 3 , Mareesa O’Dwyer 4 , Nicola Ridgers 5