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Recep Gorgulu, Andrew Cooke and Tim Woodman

limited portion of daily activities for the majority of people. Making decisions and responses based on ever-changing stimuli in our environment occupies an arguably larger portion of day-to-day life ( Gorgulu, 2017 ). Moreover, time pressures inherent in reactive tasks likely present an additional load

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Zhen Zeng, Christoph Centner, Albert Gollhofer and Daniel König

BFR promotes increases in muscle mass and strength to a similar extent as traditional high-load training. 1 – 3 Besides cuff width 4 – 6 and the duration of BFR, 7 cuff pressure intensity is considered to be one of the most important determinants for optimal training adaptations 8 , 9 with both

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Dana K. Voelker and Justine J. Reel

Figure skaters are evaluated on the execution of challenging technical skills as well as how those skills are packaged with other performance components, including costume, music, choreography, and physical appearance ( Cummins, 2007 ). Male and female skaters report experiencing pressure from a

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Zachary S. Zeigler, Pamela D. Swan, Dharini M. Bhammar and Glenn A. Gaesser

Background:

The acute effect of low-intensity walking on blood pressure (BP) is unclear.

Purpose:

To determine if the acute use of a walking workstation reduces ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in prehypertensive men and women.

Methods:

Ten prehypertensive adults participated in a randomized, cross-over study that included a control workday and a walking workstation workday. ABP was measured for 7 hour during the workday and for 6 hour after work.

Results:

Both systolic BP (SBP) (134 ± 14 vs. 137 ± 16 mmHg; P = .027) and diastolic BP (DBP) (79 ± 10 vs. 82 ± 12 mmHg; P = .001) were lower on the walking workstation day. Postwork hours (4:00 PM–10:00 PM), SBP (129 ± 13 vs. 133 ± 14 mmHg; P = .008), and DBP (74 ± 11 vs. 78 ± 13 mmHg; P = .001) were also lower on the walking workstation day. DBP load was significantly lower during the walking workstation day, with only 14% of the readings above 90 mmHg compared with 22% of the control day readings (P = .037).

Conclusion:

Accumulation of very-light-intensity physical activity (~2 METs) over the course of a single work day using a walking workstation may reduce BP burden in prehypertensive individuals.

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Chad Seifried and Matthew Papatheodorou

The main purpose of this article is to provide suggestions to coaches on how they can assist young athletes in pressure packed situations to realize an ideal performance state. Suggestions provided address controlling emotions, adopting coping methods, practicing under game situations, embracing physical routines along with mental rehearsals, and engaging in self reflection/challenges. The strategies and discussions below should appear as vital for coaches attempting to help assist a young person’s future mental and emotional development. Furthermore, it should educate coaches and potentially others (e.g., spectators and media) on how to better handle these situations or instances so they can avoid the production of negative consequences on the lives of young people (e.g., choking label, social anxiety, poor self-esteem or image).

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Bente R. Jensen, Line Hovgaard-Hansen and Katrine L. Cappelen

Running on a lower-body positive-pressure (LBPP) treadmill allows effects of weight support on leg muscle activation to be assessed systematically, and has the potential to facilitate rehabilitation and prevent overloading. The aim was to study the effect of running with weight support on leg muscle activation and to estimate relative knee and ankle joint forces. Runners performed 6-min running sessions at 2.22 m/s and 3.33 m/s, at 100%, 80%, 60%, 40%, and 20% body weight (BW). Surface electromyography, ground reaction force, and running characteristics were measured. Relative knee and ankle joint forces were estimated. Leg muscles responded differently to unweighting during running, reflecting different relative contribution to propulsion and antigravity forces. At 20% BW, knee extensor EMGpeak decreased to 22% at 2.22 m/s and 28% at 3.33 m/s of 100% BW values. Plantar flexors decreased to 52% and 58% at 20% BW, while activity of biceps femoris muscle remained unchanged. Unweighting with LBPP reduced estimated joint force significantly although less than proportional to the degree of weight support (ankle).It was concluded that leg muscle activation adapted to the new biomechanical environment, and the effect of unweighting on estimated knee force was more pronounced than on ankle force.

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Ashley Gibson Bowers, Christina L.L. Martin, John Miller, Brent Wolfe and Nancy Magee Speed

The purpose of the study was to examine female athletes’ perceptions of their body image as a result of comparing themselves to others. Social comparison theory (Festinger, 1954) was used as the theoretical basis for understanding the effects of body image among intercollegiate female athletes. Using a qualitative analysis, the authors individually interviewed 20 female collegiate athletes attending a Division I university and thematically coded their responses. The findings suggest that coaches and teammates significantly contribute to body image pressures in female athletes, as participants were sensitive to the comments and perceptions of these groups. Finally, athletes perceived that the external population (those outside of coaches and teammates) evaluated athletic talent based on actual body image.

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Elizabeth Lorenzo, Jacob Szeszulski, Michael Todd, Scherezade K. Mama and Rebecca E. Lee

high blood pressure 7 – 10 and lower body weight in adults. 9 , 11 Furthermore, AT users have been found to have better cardiovascular health than those who do not use AT, 9 suggesting that promotion of AT may be an effective physical activity intervention. AT may provide a sustainable method to

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Ryan Morrison, Kyle M. Petit, Chris Kuenze, Ryan N. Moran and Tracey Covassin

diagnostic accuracy and reliability. Due to the subjective nature of these tests, a force plate is considered the gold standard because of its objective outcome. 6 Force-plate analysis allows for the athlete center of pressure (COP) to be calculated based on the foot contact of an individual while on the

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Lauren Anne Lipker, Caitlyn Rae Persinger, Bradley Steven Michalko and Christopher J. Durall

weeks of low-resistance muscular training with moderate-pressure BFR (180 mm Hg) compared with low-resistance muscular training alone. 2 • A second study found that 13 days of low-resistance muscular training with moderate-pressure (130–180 mm Hg) BFR resulted in no difference in quadriceps CSA