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). BM indicates body mass; EMG, electromyography; RCT, randomized controlled trial; TMS, transcranial magnetic stimulation. Wile E. Coyote image licensed via carlos cardetas/Alamy Stock Photo. In the business, elite-sport, or academic setting, there is never only one way to complete a task, but there is

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Amy J. Hector and Stuart M. Phillips

). However, there is limited scientific evidence demonstrated in systematic reviews, meta-analyses or randomized controlled trials for the efficacy of a number of substances including Garcinia cambogia , chitosan, β-glucans, raspberry ketone, glucomannan (konjac fiber), fucoxanthin, green coffee, Citrus

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Oliver C. Witard, Ina Garthe and Stuart M. Phillips

Jonge , L. , Xie , H. , Rood , J. , Martin , C.K. , . . . Redman , L.M . ( 2012 ). Effect of dietary protein content on weight gain, energy expenditure, and body composition during overeating: A randomized controlled trial . JAMA, 307 ( 1 ), 47 – 55 . PubMed ID: 22215165 doi:10.1001/jama

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James A. Betts, Javier T. Gonzalez, Louise M. Burke, Graeme L. Close, Ina Garthe, Lewis J. James, Asker E. Jeukendrup, James P. Morton, David C. Nieman, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Trent Stellingwerff, Luc J.C. van Loon, Clyde Williams, Kathleen Woolf, Ron Maughan and Greg Atkinson

The CONSORT (CONsolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials) 2010 guidelines ( ) were developed to improve the reporting of parallel-group randomized controlled trials, whereby compliance with established standards can be demonstrated via completion of the

Open access

Graeme L. Close, Craig Sale, Keith Baar and Stephane Bermon

-doping regulations. Last but not least, more human-based research is needed, ideally in elite athlete populations, on the possible benefits of some macro- and micronutrients in the prevention or boosted recovery of injured athletes. Given that placebo-controlled, randomized control trials are exceptionally difficult

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Carl Foster

scientific understanding of training is grounded on the 8- to 20-week randomized controlled trial, which is so much shorter than the yearly or often quadrennial-based training plans of coaches that the scientists do not really have an appreciation of the effects of long-term periodization and thus cannot

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Eric S. Rawson, Mary P. Miles and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

immobilization in healthy, young males: A randomized controlled trial . Sports Medicine, 47 ( 8 ), 1661 – 1671 . PubMed doi:10.1007/s40279-016-0670-2 10.1007/s40279-016-0670-2 Barrett , E.C. , McBurney , M.I. , & Ciappio , E.D. ( 2014 ). Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation as a potential therapeutic

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Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener and Lars Engebretsen

unclear procedures for randomization and blinding were commonplace ( Hao et al., 2015 ; Singh & Das, 2013 ). Clearly, there is a pressing need for randomized controlled trials in high-level athletes with sufficient participant numbers, rigorous controls and procedures, appropriate supplementation

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Dana M. Lis, Daniel Kings and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

irritable bowel syndrome and a probiotic restores bifidobacterium species: A randomized controlled trial . Gastroenterology, 153 ( 4 ), 936 – 947 . PubMed ID: 28625832 doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2017.06.010 10.1053/j.gastro.2017.06.010 Stockman , M.C. , Thomas , D. , Burke , J. , & Apovian , C

Open access

Keith Baar

pilot randomized controlled trial . Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 19 ( 4 ), 399 – 405 . PubMed ID: 21251991 doi:10.1016/j.joca.2011.01.001 10.1016/j.joca.2011.01.001 Oesser , S. , Adam , M. , Babel , W. , & Seifert , J. ( 1999 ). Oral administration of 14 C labeled gelatin hydrolysate