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Michael Kellmann, Maurizio Bertollo, Laurent Bosquet, Michel Brink, Aaron J. Coutts, Rob Duffield, Daniel Erlacher, Shona L. Halson, Anne Hecksteden, Jahan Heidari, K. Wolfgang Kallus, Romain Meeusen, Iñigo Mujika, Claudio Robazza, Sabrina Skorski, Ranel Venter and Jürgen Beckmann

Definition of Central Terms Recovery is regarded as a multifaceted (eg, physiological, psychological) restorative process relative to time. In case an individual’s recovery status (ie, his or her biopsychosocial balance) is disturbed by external or internal factors, fatigue as a condition of

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Jordan Bettleyon and Thomas W. Kaminski

Clinical Scenario Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been a controversial topic for its use in athletic recovery, mainly due to the inconsistency in research regarding the timing of application for this modality. Articles on LLLT have assessed its effectiveness in untrained humans through pain

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Corey P. Ochs, Melissa C. Kay and Johna K. Register-Mihalik

resulting time out of play and the potential athletic consequences following this time loss. Concussions in professional sports, such as football and ice hockey, are unique due to players’ job security relying on their ability to perform. Typically, initial clinical recovery occurs within 7 to 10 days 3

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Steven Nagib and Shelley W. Linens

Clinical Scenario Although headache is the most commonly reported symptom associated with concussion, dizziness comes in at a close second with report rates between 66% and 77%. 1 This statistic is concerning as dizziness may be a predictor of prolonged recovery. 1 Any patient, who has symptoms

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Eric S. Rawson, Mary P. Miles and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

to exercise, improving brain performance, decreasing delayed onset muscle soreness or pain, reducing injury severity, enhancing recovery from injury, reducing gastrointestinal problems, and decreasing respiratory tract infection illness load. For the most part, these effects are not ergogenic, but

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Berkiye Kirmizigil, Jeffry Roy Chauchat, Omer Yalciner, Gozde Iyigun, Ender Angin and Gul Baltaci

with DOMS. 3 These symptoms generally appear within the first 24 hours postexercise, 3 , 4 peak 24 to 72 hours postexercise, 1 , 3 , 4 and disappear from 5 to 7 days postexercise. 3 , 4 Recovery techniques may help to expedite the process. 3 There are many causes for the psychological discomfort

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Landon Lempke, Abbis Jaffri and Nicholas Erdman

is necessary to prevent a protracted recovery. 1 For the past several decades, physical rest has been prescribed as a mainstay for SRC management. 1 More recently, rest has been divided into cognitive and physical components. Cognitive rest may include restricting daily living activities, such as

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Ashley L. Santo, Melissa L. Race and Elizabeth F. Teel

the examiner notices an eye deviating outward (exophoria). The distance measured from the target to the patient’s nose when it appears double or exophoria is noticed and recorded as the NPC break. NPC recovery is the point measured from the tip of the nose to the target when the target appears single

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Stephan R. Fisher, Justin H. Rigby, Joni A. Mettler and Kevin W. McCurdy

regulatory factors, and increases the formation of new red blood cells locally. 2 These effects make PBMT a valuable treatment option for muscle recovery; however, PBMT has not become a mainstream tool for muscle recovery in clinical practice. For decades, cryotherapy has been a popular modality for

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Ryan D. Henke, Savana M. Kettner, Stephanie M. Jensen, Augustus C.K. Greife and Christopher J. Durall

exacerbation low-intensity aerobic exercise (LIAEX) may expedite concussion recovery via increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. 2 – 5 Subsymptom exacerbation LIAEX, starting a minimum of 4 weeks after an SRC, has been reported to be more beneficial than rest, 6 but the effects of LIAEX